MASSIVSILBER alte drei Pence 1899 Vintage Münze antik Netflix TV Show viktorianisch • EUR 25,22 (2024)

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Verkäufer: anddownthewaterfall ✉️ (33.872) 99.8%, Artikelstandort: Manchester, Take a Look at My Other Items, GB, Versand nach: WORLDWIDE, Artikelnummer: 364884524850 MASSIVSILBER alte drei Pence 1899 Vintage Münze antik Netflix TV Show viktorianisch. 1899 Three Pence Coin The Year of the Netflix TV Show British Threepence Coin from 1899 from the reign of Queen Victoria who appears on one side of the coin Solid 0.925 Silver In Good Condition given it is over one hundred and twenty years old Starting at less than its original monetary value one Penny...With No Reserve ..If your the only bidder you win it for 1p....Grab a Bargain!!!! Would make an Excellent Charm or Collectible Keepsake Souvenir of the worlds most famous football team I will have a lot of Similar items on Ebay so Check out my other items ! Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback Check out my other items ! All Payment Methods in All Major Currencies Accepted. Be sure to add me to your favourites list ! All Items Dispatched within 24 hours of Receiving Payment . Thanks for Looking and Best of Luck with the Bidding!! I have sold items to coutries such as Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL) * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * North Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL) * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL) * Sint Maarten (NL) * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabwe and major cities such as Tokyo, Yokohama, New York City, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Mexico City, Osaka, Kobe, Kyoto, Manila, Mumbai, Delhi, Jakarta, Lagos, Kolkata, Cairo, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Moscow, Shanghai, Karachi, Paris, Istanbul, Nagoya, Beijing, Chicago, London, Shenzhen, Essen, Düsseldorf, Tehran, Bogota, Lima, Bangkok, Johannesburg, East Rand, Chennai, Taipei, Baghdad, Santiago, Bangalore, Hyderabad, St Petersburg, Philadelphia, Lahore, Kinshasa, Miami, Ho Chi Minh City, Madrid, Tianjin, Kuala Lumpur, Toronto, Milan, Shenyang, Dallas, Fort Worth, Boston, Belo Horizonte, Khartoum, Riyadh, Singapore, Washington, Detroit, Barcelona,, Houston, Athens, Berlin, Sydney, Atlanta, Guadalajara, San Francisco, Oakland, Montreal, Monterey, Melbourne, Ankara, Recife, Phoenix/Mesa, Durban, Porto Alegre, Dalian, Jeddah, Seattle, Cape Town, San Diego, Fortaleza, Curitiba, Rome, Naples, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Tel Aviv, Birmingham, Frankfurt, Lisbon, Manchester, San Juan, Katowice, Tashkent, f*ckuoka, Baku, Sumqayit, St. Louis, Baltimore, Sapporo, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Taichung, Warsaw, Denver, Cologne, Bonn, Hamburg, Dubai, Pretoria, Vancouver, Beirut, Budapest, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Campinas, Harare, Brasilia, Kuwait, Munich, Portland, Brussels, Vienna, San Jose, Damman , Copenhagen, Brisbane, Riverside, San Bernardino, Cincinnati and Accra Threepence (British coin) Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Threepenny bit" redirects here. For the building in south London, see No. 1 Croydon. For other uses, see Threepence (disambiguation). This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Threepence" British coin – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (July 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Threepence United Kingdom Value £0.0125 Mass Silver: 1.415 g Nickel-brass: 6.8 g Diameter Silver: 16.20 mm Nickel-brass: 21.0–21.8 mm Thickness Nickel-brass: 2.5 mm Edge Plain Composition 1816–1919: 92.5% Ag 1920–1945: 50% Ag 1937–1970: Nickel-brass (79% Cu, 20% Zn, 1% Ni) Years of minting 1547–1970 Obverse Design Profile of the monarch Reverse Design Various The British threepence piece, usually simply known as a threepence, thruppence, or thruppenny bit, was a denomination of sterling coinage worth 1⁄80 of one pound or 1⁄4 of one shilling. It was used in the United Kingdom, and earlier in Great Britain and England. Similar denominations were later used throughout the British Empire and Commonwealth countries, notably in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. The sum of three pence was pronounced variously /ˈθrʊpɛns/ THRUUP-ənss, /ˈθrɛpəns/ THREP-ənss or /ˈθrʌpəns/ THRUP-ənss, reflecting different pronunciations in the various regions of the United Kingdom. The coin was often referred to in conversation as a /ˈθrʊpni/ THRUUP-nee, /ˈθrɛpni/ THREP-nee or /ˈθrʌpni/ THRUP-nee bit. Before Decimal Day in 1971, sterling used the Carolingian monetary system, under which the largest unit was a pound divided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence. The threepence coin was withdrawn in 1971 due to decimalisation and replaced by the decimal new penny, with 2.4d being worth 1p. Early threepences Threepence of James VI and I, minted in Ireland The three pence coin – expressed in writing as "3d" – first appeared in England during the fine silver coinage of King Edward VI (1547–53), when it formed part of a set of new denominations. Although it was an easy denomination to work with in the context of the old sterling coinage system, being a quarter of a shilling, initially it was not popular with the public who preferred the groat (four pence). Hence the coin was not minted in the following two reigns – if one controversially counts Jane or incorrectly treats coins in the sole name of Mary as being a separate "reign" from those which also show and name her husband Philip. Edward VI threepences were struck at the London and York mints. The obverse shows a front-facing bust of the king, with a rose to the left and the value numeral III to the right, surrounded by the legend EDWARD VI D G ANG FRA Z HIB REX. The reverse shows a long cross over the royal shield, surrounded by the legend (London mint) POSUI DEUM ADIUTOREM MEUM (I have made God my helper), or (York mint) CIVITAS EBORACI (City of York). Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603) produced threepences during her third coinage (1561–1577). Most 1561 issues are 21 mm in diameter, while later ones are 19 mm in diameter. These coins are identifiable from other denominations by the rose behind the queen's head on the obverse, and the date on the reverse. The obverse shows a left-facing crowned bust of the queen with a rose behind her, surrounded by the legend ELIZABETH D G ANG FR ET HIB REGINA, while the reverse shows shield over a long cross, dated 1561, surrounded by the legend POSUI DEU ADIUTOREM MEU. Dates used for the smaller coins were 1561–77. Threepences of the fourth coinage (1578–1582) are identical except for having a slightly lower silver content. There was also a fairly rare milled coinage threepence, produced between 1561 and 1564 with similar designs and inscriptions to the hammered coinage threepences. The threepence denomination fell out of use again during the reign of King James I, while during King Charles I's reign (1625–49) it was not produced at the London Tower mint, but was produced (sometimes in some quantity) at various provincial mints. The denomination is identified by the numeral III appearing behind the king's head. Threepences reintroduced Charles I threepence (Aberystwyth, 1638–42) By far the most common Charles I threepences were produced at the Aberystwyth mint between 1638 and 1642. They feature a left-facing crowned bust of the king with plumes in front of his face and the numeral III behind him, with the legend CAROLUS DG MA B FR ET H REX (or a combination of M(A) B F(R) ET H(I)(B) depending on the engraver), with the reverse showing the royal arms on a large oval shield with plumes above the shield, and the legend CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO – I reign under the auspices of Christ. Plumes were the identifying symbol of the Aberystwyth mint, but the Bristol and Oxford mints often used dies from the Aberystwyth mint so plumes often appear on their output too. Milled coins were produced at the York mint between 1638 and 1649, which look similar to the Aberystwyth product but without the plumes – the obverse features a left-facing crowned bust of the king with the numeral III behind him, with the legend CAROLUS D G MAG BR FR ET HI REX, with the reverse showing the royal arms on a shield over a cross, with EBOR over the shield and the legend CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO. Coins were produced at the Oxford mint between 1644 and 1646, using the Aberystwyth dies for the obverse, while the reverse of the 1644 coin shows the Declaration of Oxford in three lines: RELI PRO LEG ANG LIB PAR. 1644 OX – The religion of the Protestants, the laws of England, the liberty of Parliament. 1644 Oxford, while around the outside of the coin is the legend EXURGAT DEUS DISSIPENTUR INIMICI – Let God arise and His enemies be scattered. This coin also appears dated 1646. A further type produced at Oxford had on the obverse the king's bust with the denomination behind him, and the letter "R" (for Rawlins, the maker of the die) below the king's shoulder and the legend CAROLUS D G M BR F ET H REX and the Aberystwyth reverse. Rarer threepences The mint at Bristol produced rare threepences in 1644 and 1645. In 1644 the Aberystwyth obverse was used to produce a coin with the reverse showing the Declaration of Oxford: REL PRO LEG AN LIB PA 1644 – The religion of the Protestants, the laws of England, the liberty of Parliament 1644, while around the outside of the coin is the legend EXURGAT DEUS DISSIPENTUR INIMICI – Let God arise and His enemies be scattered. This was repeated in 1645, but with a plumelet instead of a plume in front of the king's face. In 1644 the Exeter mint produced a fairly scarce threepence. It features a left-facing crowned bust of the king with the numeral III behind him, with the legend CAROLUS D G MA BR F ET H RE, with the reverse showing the royal arms on a shield with the date 1644 above the shield, and the legend CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO. No threepences were produced by the Commonwealth of England. A quantity of (370,000) silver threepences were struck dated 1945, although these were all melted with the metal used in other mint products. However, it is believed a handful escaped, with one example selling for £62,000 at auction in 2020.[1] Mid-to-late 17th century The final hammered coinage threepences were produced at the start of the reign of King Charles II. In style they are very reminiscent of his father's issues, the obverse featuring the bust of the king, with the numeral III and the legend CAROLUS II D G MAG BRI F ET H REX, with the reverse showing the royal arms on a shield over a cross, and the legend CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO. The milled silver threepences of Charles II form two types. There is the undated issue which looks very like the earlier hammered coinage, with a crowned left-facing bust of the king with the denomination indicated by III behind his head, and the inscription CAROLVS II D G M B F & H REX, with the reverse showing a shield encircling the arms of England, Scotland, Ireland and France with the legend CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO. This was followed by the dated issue, issued each year from 1670 to 1684, where the obverse features a right-facing uncrowned bust of the king and the inscription CAROLVS II DEI GRATIA, with the reverse showing three crowned interlinked "C"s (indicating the value) and the inscription MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX date. All milled silver threepences were 17 millimetres in diameter and weighed 1.5 grams – dimensions which were unchanged until near the end of the reign of George III. A similar threepence was produced for King James II, dated 1685 to 1688, the obverse showing a left-facing bust of the king and the inscription IACOBVS II DEI GRATIA, with the reverse showing three crowned "I"s (indicating the value) and the inscription MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX date. For the joint reign of King William III and Queen Mary II, threepences were produced in all years from 1689 to 1694. For the first two years a somewhat caricatured portrait of the monarchs was used, replaced by a rather more staid portrait in 1691, with the inscription GVLIELMVS ET MARIA D G, while the reverse shows a crowned Arabic number "3" and the inscription MAG BR FR ET HIB REX ET REGINA date. For the sole reign of William III, the design remained very similar, with the inscriptions changed to GVLIELMVS III DEI GRA and MAG BR FR ET HIB REX date. Early 18th century In the reign of Queen Anne (1702–1714), the same basic design was used, with threepences produced in 1703–10 and 1713. The obverse shows a left-facing bust of the Queen, with the inscription ANNA DEI GRATIA while the reverse shows the crowned "3" and MAG BR FR ET HIB REG date (1703–05, 1707), MAG BR FRA ET HIB REG (1706), or MAG BRI FR ET HIB REG (1708–13). The design continued in the reign of King George I, when threepences were produced in 1717, 1721, 1723, and 1727. The obverse shows a right-facing bust of the King, with the inscription GEORGIVS DEI GRATIA while the reverse shows the crowned "3" and MAG BRI FR ET HIB REX date. Unusually, the same young portrait of King George II was used on the threepence throughout his reign (1727–60), despite an older portrait being used on other denominations from 1743. Threepences were produced in 1729, 1731, 1732, 1735, 1737, 1739, 1740, 1743, 1746, and 1760. The obverse shows a left-facing bust of the King, with the inscription GEORGIVS II DEI GRATIA while the reverse shows the crowned "3" and MAG BRI FR ET HIB REX date. Change of role While the silver threepence was minted as a currency coin until nearly the middle of the 20th century, it is clear that the purpose of the coin changed during the reign of King George III (1760–1820). In the first two years of minting, 1762 and 1763, the coin was obviously produced for general circulation as examples are generally found well worn; on the other hand, coins from the late issue (1817–20) are usually found in very fine condition, indicating that they were probably issued as Maundy money. Over the length of the reign there were several different designs of obverse and reverse in use. Threepences were issued in 1762–63, 1765–66, 1770, 1772, 1780, 1784, 1786, 1792, 1795, 1800, 1817, 1818, and 1820. From 1817 the dimensions of the coin were reduced to a weight of 1.4 grams (defined as 1⁄22 troy ounce[2]) and diameter of 16 millimetres, following the Great Recoinage of 1816. The inscription on the obverse reads GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA up to 1800, and GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA date from 1817. The reverse inscription reads MAG BRI FR ET HIB REX date up to 1800 and BRITANNIARUM REX FID DEF date from 1817. By the start of the reign of King George IV (1820–30) the coin was being struck primarily as a Maundy coin, although some coins were produced for use in the colonies. See Maundy money for full details of these issues. Threepences were struck in all years from 1822 to 1830, though the king's head is smaller on the 1822 issue, apparently because the correct punch broke and the one from the twopence was used instead. The obverse inscription reads GEORGIUS IIII D G BRITANNIAR REX F D, while the reverse shows a new-style crowned "3" and date, all within a wreath. In King William IV's reign (1830–37), maundy coins were produced in 1831–37, and identical circulation coins were produced for the colonies, identifiable only through not having a prooflike surface. The obverse inscription reads GULIELMUS IIII D G BRITANNIAR REX F D, while the reverse shows the new-style crowned "3" and date, all within a wreath. Queen Victoria Victoria threepence 1899 During the reign of Queen Victoria, threepences were produced both for Maundy use and for normal circulation in all years between 1838 and 1901 except 1847, 1848, and 1852 (perhaps because of the proposal for a decimal currency at the time (see florin); the 3d at 1⁄80 pound would not have fitted within a decimal system). Currency silver threepences from 1838 to 1926 were of identical design and cannot usually be distinguished except in the best conditions when the higher striking standard of the Maundy coins stands out; when the currency was decimalised in 1971, all silver threepences from 1870 onwards were revalued at three new pence, not just the Maundy coins. Threepences were produced both with the "young head" (1838–87) and with the "Jubilee head" (1887–93), inscribed VICTORIA D G BRITANNIAR REGINA F D, while those produced with the "old head" (1893–1901) are inscribed VICTORIA DEI GRA BRITT REGINA FID DEF IND IMP. Early 20th century The currency threepence was issued for each of the nine years of the reign of King Edward VII from 1902. The reverse design remained the same, while the obverse showed the right-facing effigy of the king, with the inscription EDWARDVS VII D G BRITT OMN REX F D IND IMP. The reign of King George V (1910–1936) features several changes to the threepence denomination. As with all British silver coins, the silver content was reduced from sterling (0.925) silver to 50% silver, 40% copper, 10% nickel in 1920, 50% silver, 50% copper in 1922, and 50% silver, 40% copper, 5% nickel, 5% zinc in 1927, while the design of the reverse of the circulating threepence (but not the maundy threepence) was completely changed in 1927 to three oak sprigs with three acorns and a "G" in the centre, and the inscription THREE PENCE date. The inscription on the obverse throughout the reign was GEORGIVS V D G BRITT OMN REX F D IND IMP. The threepences of King Edward VIII were all patterns awaiting royal approval at the time of the abdication in December 1936. The silver threepence had another completely new reverse – three interlinked rings of Saint Edmund, with the inscription FID DEF IND IMP 1937 THREE PENCE, while the obverse shows a left-facing effigy of the king with the inscription EDWARDVS VIII D G BR OMN REX and a very small silver engravement. Brass vs silver threepences A 1943 brass threepenny bit By the end of George V's reign the threepence had become unpopular in England because of its small size (George Orwell comments on this in Keep the Aspidistra Flying[3]), but it remained popular in Scotland. It was consequently decided to introduce a more substantial threepenny coin which would have a more convenient weight/value ratio than the silver coinage. The silver threepence continued to be minted, as there may have been some uncertainty about how well the new coin would be accepted. The reign of Edward VIII saw the planned introduction of a new, larger, nickel-brass (79% copper, 20% zinc, 1% nickel) twelve-sided threepence coin. This coin weighed 6.6 grams (0.23 oz) and the diameter was 21 millimetres (0.83 in) across the sides and 22 millimetres (0.87 in) across the corners. The obverse shows a left-facing effigy of the king[4] (not right as would have been the convention to alternate the direction) with the inscription EDWARDVS VIII D G BR OMN REX F D IND IMP, and the reverse shows a three-headed thrift plant with the inscription THREE PENCE 1937. A total of just 12 of these coins were struck for experimental purposes and sent to a slot machine manufacturing company for testing. The whereabouts of six of those 12 are known. However, the other six are still out there somewhere and, as such, they are extremely rare today. An example was put up for auction in 2013, expecting £30,000.[citation needed] There are two types of Edward VIII brass threepences. The first type has the date broken by a thrift plant design and the second has the date below. During the reign of King George VI, circulation silver threepences were produced only in 1937–45 (and almost all the 1945 examples were subsequently melted down). The obverse shows a left-facing effigy of the king with the inscription GEORGIVS VI D G BR OMN REX, while the reverse has an elegant design of a shield of St George lying on a Tudor rose, dividing the date, with the inscription FID DEF IND IMP THREE PENCE. The nickel-brass threepence took over the bulk of the production of the denomination, being produced in all years between 1937 and 1952 except 1947. Apart from the king's head and name, and the weight being increased to 6.8 grams (0.24 oz), the coin was identical to that prepared for Edward VIII.[5] Coins dated 1946 and 1949 were minted in far fewer numbers than the rest, and as nickel-brass wears very quickly; higher grade specimens of these coins are expensive to buy now (both over £500 for uncirculated examples). The scarce dates are 1948, 1950 and 1951 and these are now selling for £60–£80 in mint state. Elizabeth II threepences The physical dimensions of the brass threepence remained the same in the reign of Queen Elizabeth II. The effigy of the queen produced by Mary Gillick was used, with the inscription ELIZABETH II DEI GRA BRITT OMN REGINA F D used in 1953, and ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA F D used in all other years. The reverse shows a Tudor portcullis with chains and a coronet, with the inscription THREE PENCE date. This coin was produced in all years from 1953 to 1967, and in 1970 (in proof sets only). Following decimalisation, the brass threepence ceased to be legal tender after 31 August 1971. The Commonwealth A three pence coin was also used in the pre-decimalisation currencies of Commonwealth of Nations countries such as Fiji, Australia, and New Zealand. It was called a tickey in South Africa[6] and Southern Rhodesia.[7] Building No. 1 Croydon was known for many years as the "threepenny bit building" for its resemblance to a stack of threepenny coins. After the coins were phased out (beginning in 1970) the building eventually gained a new nickname, the "50p building". Nickname The silver threepenny bit became known as a 'joey'. However, the original 'joey' was the groat (or fourpence).The groat was re-introduced in 1836 during the reign of William IV at the suggestion of Joseph Hume (1777-1855).Popularly known as the 'joey',named after Hume's christian name, it was introduced to ease transactions on the London buses, the fare being four pence or one groat. As the last groats were struck in 1888 the nickname passed to the silver threepences struck after that date until 1941 (the last year of production for British use). The silver threepence continued to be struck for three further years from 1942 to 1944 inclusive although for colonial use only as the 12-sided brass threepences were being struck in large numbers. The 12-sided coin reprised In March 2014, the Royal Mint announced that a new design of one pound coin would be introduced in 2017, reprising the twelve-sided shape. The new coin was designed to be more difficult to counterfeit.[8][9] October 2019 – sale of 120,000 threepences In 2019, the London Mint Office authorised and oversaw the sale of 120,000 silver threepence coins dated to King George V's reign; one threepence from the sale is included in this image alongside a gold half sovereign from 1911. In October 2019, it was announced that 120,000 silver threepences dated to 1935 and earlier were to be sold to the general public, as part of a move to encourage people to pick up coin collecting and numismatics.[10] The London Mint Office oversaw the sale of the coins, which all date from George V's reign and were valued at a total of approximately £1m, although a more realistic valuation would be in the region of £60,000.[citation needed] See also icon Money portal Numismatics portal flag United Kingdom portal Irish three-pence coin Australian threepence coin New Zealand pound References 1945 Threepence sells for £62,000 Kindleberger, Charles P. (2005). A Financial History of Western Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 60. ISBN 9780415378673. Orwell, George (1936). "Chapter 1". Keep the Aspidistra Flying. London: Victor Gollancz. Because how can you buy anything with a threepenny-bit? It isn't a coin, it's the answer to a riddle. "Pictures of Coins of the UK". "Coins of the UK - Three Pence". Hear the Tickey Bottle Tinkle, The Rotarian, June 1954, page 51 Southern Rhodesia, Past and Present, Chronicle Stationery and Book Store, 1945 Svenja O’Donnell (2014-03-18). "U.K. to Replace 1-Pound Coin With Secure 12-Edged Design". Bloomberg. "New 12-sided £1 coin unveiled". ITV. 2014-03-19. Hardy, Jack (4 November 2019). "£1 million worth of 'thruppences' to be sold to stop coin collecting dying out". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 November 2019. External links British Coins – Free information about British coins. Includes an online forum. History of the Threepence Threepence (Circulating), Coin Type from United Kingdom - Online Coin Club vte Coins of England vte Sterling coinage Decimal 1 / 2 p1p2p5p10p20p50p£1£2 Pre-decimal Quarter farthing ( 1 / 16 d.) (Ceylon)Third farthing ( 1 / 12 d.) (Malta)Half farthing ( 1 / 8 d.)Farthing ( 1 / 4 d.)Halfpenny ( 1 / 2 d.)Penny (1d.)Three halfpence (1+ 1 / 2 d.) (British Ceylon & British West Indies)Twopence (2d.)Threepence (3d.)Fourpence (4d.)Sixpence (6d.)Shilling (1/–)Fifteen pence (1/3d.) (Australia)Eighteen Pence(1/6d.) (British Ireland)Florin (2/–)Half crown (2/6d.)Thirty Pence(2/6d.) (British Ireland)Double florin (4/–)Crown (5/–)Six Shillings (6/-) (British Ireland)Quarter guinea (5/3d.)Third guinea (7/–)Half sovereign (10/–)Half guinea (10/6d.)Sovereign (£1)Guinea (£1/1/–)Double sovereign (£2)Two guineas (£2/2/–)Five pounds (£5)Five guineas (£5/5/–) Commemorative 3p (Tristan da Cunha)6p25p60p (Isle of Man)70p (Ascension Island)£5£10£20£25£50£100£200£500£1000Maundy money Bullion BritanniaQuarter sovereignHalf sovereignSovereignDouble sovereignQuintuple sovereignLunarThe Queen's BeastsLandmarks of Britain See also Sterling (currency)Sterling banknotesList of British banknotes and coinsList of British currenciesJubilee coinageOld Head coinageScottish coinageCoins of IrelandList of people on coins of the United Kingdom Categories: History of British coinagePre-decimalisation coins of the United KingdomCoins of Great Britain Netflix Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the streaming service. For the company, see Netflix, Inc. For other uses, see Netflix (disambiguation). Netflix Logo for the Netflix service. Logo used since 2014 Screenshot Type of site OTT streaming platform Available in List Headquarters Los Gatos, California, U.S. Country of origin United States Area served Worldwide (except China, North Korea, Russia and Syria)[3][4] Parent Netflix, Inc. URL www.netflix.com Edit this at Wikidata Commercial Yes Registration Required Users Increase 247.15 million (as of October 18, 2023)[5] Launched January 16, 2007; 16 years ago Current status Active Netflix is an American subscription video on-demand over-the-top streaming service. The service primarily distributes original and acquired films and television shows from various genres, and it is available internationally in multiple languages.[6] Launched on January 16, 2007, nearly a decade after Netflix, Inc. began its pioneering DVD‑by‑mail movie rental service, Netflix is the most-subscribed video on demand streaming media service, with 238.39 million paid memberships in more than 190 countries.[7] By 2022, "Netflix Original" productions accounted for half of its library in the United States and the namesake company had ventured into other categories, such as video game publishing of mobile games via its flagship service. History For a chronological guide, see Timeline of Netflix. Netflix logo history First logo, used from 1996 to 2000 Second logo, used from 2000 to 2001 Third logo, used from 2001 to 2014 Fourth and current logo, used since 2014 Launch as a mail-based rental business (1997–2006) Marc Randolph, co-founder of Netflix and the first CEO of the company Reed Hastings, co-founder and the current chairman and CEO Netflix was founded by Marc Randolph and Reed Hastings on August 29, 1997, in Scotts Valley, California. Hastings, a computer scientist and mathematician, was a co-founder of Pure Software, which was acquired by Rational Software that year for $750 million, the then biggest acquisition in Silicon Valley history.[8] Randolph had worked as a marketing director for Pure Software after Pure Atria acquired a company where Randolph worked. He was previously a co-founder of MicroWarehouse, a computer mail-order company as well as vice president of marketing for Borland.[9][10] Hastings and Randolph came up with the idea for Netflix while carpooling between their homes in Santa Cruz, California, and Pure Atria's headquarters in Sunnyvale.[11] Patty McCord, later head of Human Resources at Netflix, was also in the carpool group.[12] Randolph admired Amazon and wanted to find a large category of portable items to sell over the Internet using a similar model. Hastings and Randolph considered and rejected selling and renting VHS as too expensive to stock and too delicate to ship.[9] When they heard about DVDs, first introduced in the United States in early 1998, they tested the concept of selling or renting DVDs by mail by mailing a compact disc to Hastings's house in Santa Cruz.[9] When the disc arrived intact, they decided to enter the $16 billion Home-video sales and rental industry.[9][11] Hastings is often quoted saying that he decided to start Netflix after being fined $40 at a Blockbuster store for being late to return a copy of Apollo 13.[11] Hastings invested $2.5 million into Netflix from the sale of Pure Atria.[13][11] Netflix launched as the first DVD rental and sales website with 30 employees and 925 titles available—nearly all DVDs published.[11][14][15] Randolph and Hastings met with Jeff Bezos, where Amazon offered to acquire Netflix for between $14 and $16 million. Fearing competition from Amazon, Randolph at first thought the offer was fair, but Hastings, who owned 70% of the company, turned it down on the plane ride home.[16][17] Initially, Netflix offered a per-rental model for each DVD but introduced a monthly subscription concept in September 1999.[18] The per-rental model was dropped by early 2000, allowing the company to focus on the business model of flat-fee unlimited rentals without due dates, late fees, shipping and handling fees, or per-title rental fees.[19] In September 2000, during the dot-com bubble, while Netflix was suffering losses, Hastings and Randolph offered to sell the company to Blockbuster for $50 million. John Antioco, CEO of Blockbuster, thought the offer was a joke and declined, saying, "The dot-com hysteria is completely overblown."[20][21] While Netflix experienced fast growth in early 2001, the continued effects of the dot-com bubble collapse and the September 11 attacks caused the company to hold off plans for its initial public offering (IPO) and to lay off one-third of its 120 employees.[22] Opened Netflix rental envelope containing a DVD copy of Coach Carter (2005) DVD players were a popular gift for holiday sales in late 2001, and demand for DVD subscription services were "growing like crazy", according to chief talent officer Patty McCord.[23] The company went public on May 29, 2002, selling 5.5 million shares of common stock at US$15.00 per share.[24] In 2003, Netflix was issued a patent by the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office to cover its subscription rental service and several extensions.[25] Netflix posted its first profit in 2003, earning $6.5 million on revenues of $272 million; by 2004, profit had increased to $49 million on over $500 million in revenues.[26] In 2005, 35,000 different films were available, and Netflix shipped 1 million DVDs out every day.[27] In 2004, Blockbuster introduced a DVD rental service, which not only allowed users to check out titles through online sites but allowed for them to return them at brick and-mortar stores.[28] By 2006, Blockbuster's service reached two million users, and while trailing Netflix's subscriber count, was drawing business away from Netflix. Netflix lowered fees in 2007.[26] While it was an urban legend that Netflix ultimately "killed" Blockbuster in the DVD rental market, Blockbuster's debt load and internal disagreements hurt the company.[28] On April 4, 2006, Netflix filed a patent infringement lawsuit in which it demanded a jury trial in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, alleging that Blockbuster's online DVD rental subscription program violated two patents held by Netflix. The first cause of action alleged Blockbuster's infringement of copying the "dynamic queue" of DVDs available for each customer, Netflix's method of using the ranked preferences in the queue to send DVDs to subscribers, and Netflix's method permitting the queue to be updated and reordered.[29] The second cause of action alleged infringement of the subscription rental service as well as Netflix's methods of communication and delivery.[30] The companies settled their dispute on June 25, 2007; terms were not disclosed.[31][32][33][34] On October 1, 2006, Netflix announced the Netflix Prize, $1,000,000 to the first developer of a video-recommendation algorithm that could beat its existing algorithm Cinematch, at predicting customer ratings by more than 10%. On September 21, 2009, it awarded the $1,000,000 prize to team "BellKor's Pragmatic Chaos."[35] Cinematch, launched in 2000, is a recommendation system that recommended movies to its users, many of which they might not ever had heard of before.[36][37] Through its division Red Envelope Entertainment, Netflix licensed and distributed independent films such as Born into Brothels and Sherrybaby. In late 2006, Red Envelope Entertainment also expanded into producing original content with filmmakers such as John Waters.[38] Netflix closed Red Envelope Entertainment in 2008.[39][40] Transition to streaming services (2007–2012) In January 2007, the company launched a streaming media service, introducing video on demand via the Internet. However, at that time it only had 1,000 films available for streaming, compared to 70,000 available on DVD.[41] The company had for some time considered offering movies online, but it was only in the mid-2000s that data speeds and bandwidth costs had improved sufficiently to allow customers to download movies from the net. The original idea was a "Netflix box" that could download movies overnight, and be ready to watch the next day. By 2005, Netflix had acquired movie rights and designed the box and service. But after witnessing how popular streaming services such as YouTube were despite the lack of high-definition content, the concept of using a hardware device was scrapped and replaced with a streaming concept.[42] In February 2007, Netflix delivered its billionth DVD, a copy of Babel to a customer in Texas.[43][44] In April 2007, Netflix recruited ReplayTV founder Anthony Wood, to build a "Netflix Player" that would allow streaming content to be played directly on a television rather than a desktop or laptop.[45] Hastings eventually shut down the project to help encourage other hardware manufacturers to include built-in Netflix support, which would be spun off as the digital media player product Roku.[46][47][48] In January 2008, all rental-disc subscribers became entitled to unlimited streaming at no additional cost. This change came in a response to the introduction of Hulu and to Apple's new video-rental services.[49][50][page needed] In August 2008, the Netflix database was corrupted and the company was not able to ship DVDs to customers for 3 days, leading the company to move all its data to the Amazon Web Services cloud.[51] In November 2008, Netflix began offering subscribers rentals on Blu-ray and discontinued its sale of used DVDs.[52] In 2009, Netflix streams overtook DVD shipments.[53] On January 6, 2010, Netflix agreed with Warner Bros. to delay new release rentals to 28 days after the DVDs became available for sale, in an attempt to help studios sell physical copies, and similar deals involving Universal Pictures and 20th Century Fox were reached on April 9.[54][55][56] In July 2010, Netflix signed a deal to stream movies of Relativity Media.[57] In August 2010, Netflix reached a five-year deal worth nearly $1 billion to stream films from Paramount, Lionsgate and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The deal increased Netflix's annual spending fees, adding roughly $200 million per year. It spent $117 million in the first six months of 2010 on streaming, up from $31 million in 2009.[58] On September 22, 2010, Netflix launched in Canada, its first international market.[59][60] In November 2010, Netflix began offering a standalone streaming service separate from DVD rentals.[61] In 2010, Netflix acquired the rights to Breaking Bad, produced by Sony Pictures Television, after the show's third season, at a point where original broadcaster AMC had expressed the possibility of cancelling the show. Sony pushed Netflix to release Breaking Bad in time for the fourth season, which as a result, greatly expanded the show's audience on AMC due to new viewers binging on the Netflix past episodes, and doubling the viewership by the time of the fifth season. Breaking Bad is considered the first such show to have this "Netflix effect."[62] In January 2011, Netflix announced agreements with several manufacturers to include branded Netflix buttons on the remote controls of devices compatible with the service, such as Blu-ray players.[63] By May 2011, Netflix had become the largest source of Internet streaming traffic in North America, accounting for 30% of traffic during peak hours.[64][65][66][67] On July 12, 2011, Netflix announced that it would separate its existing subscription plans into two separate plans: one covering the streaming and the other DVD rental services.[68][69] The cost for streaming would be $7.99 per month, while DVD rental would start at the same price.[70] In September 2011, Netflix announced a content deal with DreamWorks Animation.[71] In September 2011, Netflix expanded to countries in Latin America.[72][73][74] On September 18, 2011, Netflix announced its intentions to rebrand and restructure its DVD home media rental service as an independent subsidiary called Qwikster, separating DVD rental and streaming services.[75][76][77][78][79] On October 10, 2011, Netflix announced that it would retain its DVD service under the name Netflix and that its streaming and DVD-rental plans would remain branded together, citing customer dissatisfaction with the split[80][81] In October 2011. Netflix and The CW signed a multi-year output deal for its' television shows.[82] On January 4, 2012, Netflix started its expansion to Europe, launching in the United Kingdom and Ireland.[83] In February 2012, Netflix reached a multi-year agreement with The Weinstein Company.[84][85] In March 2012, Netflix acquired the domain name DVD.com.[86] By 2016, Netflix rebranded its DVD-by-mail service under the name DVD.com, A Netflix Company.[87][88] In April 2012, Netflix filed with the Federal Election Commission (FEC) to form a political action committee (PAC) called FLIXPAC.[89] Netflix spokesperson Joris Evers tweeted that the intent was to "engage on issues like net neutrality, bandwidth caps, UBB and VPPA".[90][91] In June 2012, Netflix signed a deal with Open Road Films.[92][93] On August 23, 2012, Netflix and The Weinstein Company signed a multi-year output deal for RADiUS-TWC films.[94][95] In September 2012, Epix signed a five-year streaming deal with Netflix. For the initial two years of this agreement, first-run and back-catalog content from Epix was exclusive to Netflix. Epix films came to Netflix 90 days after premiering on Epix.[96] These included films from Paramount, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Lionsgate.[97][98] On October 18, 2012, Netflix launched in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.[99][100] On December 4, 2012, Netflix and Disney announced an exclusive multi-year agreement for first-run United States subscription television rights to Walt Disney Studios' animated and live-action films, with classics such as Dumbo, Alice in Wonderland and Pocahontas available immediately and others available on Netflix beginning in 2016.[101] Direct-to-video releases were made available in 2013.[102][103] On January 14, 2013, Netflix signed an agreement with Time Warner's Turner Broadcasting System and Warner Bros. Television to distribute Cartoon Network, Warner Bros. Animation, and Adult Swim content, as well as TNT's Dallas, beginning in March 2013. The rights to these programs were given to Netflix shortly after deals with Viacom to stream Nickelodeon and Nick Jr. Channel programs expired.[104] For cost reasons, Netflix stated that it would limit its expansion in 2013,[105] adding only one new market—the Netherlands—in September of that year. This expanded its availability to 40 territories.[106][107] Development of original programming (2013–2017) This section is in list format but may read better as prose. You can help by converting this section, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (November 2021) In 2011, Netflix began its efforts into original content development. In March, it made a straight-to-series order from MRC for the political drama House of Cards, led by Kevin Spacey, outbidding other U.S. cable networks. This marked the first instance of a first-run television series being specifically commissioned by the service.[108] In November the same year, Netflix added two more significant productions to its roster: the comedy-drama Orange is the New Black, adapted from Piper Kerman's memoir,[109] and a new season of the previously cancelled Fox sitcom Arrested Development.[110] Netflix acquired the U.S. rights to the Norwegian drama Lilyhammer after its television premiere on Norway's NRK1 on January 25, 2012. Notably departing from the traditional broadcast television model of weekly episode premieres, Netflix chose to release the entire first season on February 8 of the same year.[111][112] House of Cards was released by Netflix on February 1, 2013, marketed as the first "Netflix Original" production.[113] Later that month, Netflix announced an agreement with DreamWorks Animation to commission children's television series based on its properties, beginning with Turbo: F.A.S.T., a spin-off of its film Turbo.[114][115] Orange is the New Black would premiere in July 2013; Netflix stated that Orange is the New Black had been its most-watched original series so far, with all of them having "an audience comparable with successful shows on cable and broadcast TV."[116][117] On March 13, 2013, Netflix added a Facebook sharing feature, letting United States subscribers access "Watched by your friends" and "Friends' Favorites" by agreeing.[118] This was not legal until the Video Privacy Protection Act was modified in early 2013.[119] On August 1, 2013, Netflix reintroduced the "Profiles" feature that permits accounts to accommodate up to five user profiles.[120][121][122][123] In November 2013, Marvel Television and ABC Studios announced Netflix had ordered a slate of four television series based on the Marvel Comics characters Daredevil, Jessica Jones, Iron Fist and Luke Cage. Each of the four series received an initial order of 13 episodes, and Netflix also ordered a Defenders miniseries that would tie them together. Daredevil and Jessica Jones premiered in 2015.[124][125][126] The Luke Cage series premiered on September 30, 2016, followed by Iron Fist on March 17, 2017, and The Defenders on August 18, 2017.[127][128] Marvel owner Disney later entered into other content agreements with Netflix, including acquiring its animated Star Wars series Star Wars: The Clone Wars, and a new sixth season.[129] In February 2014, Netflix began to enter into agreements with U.S. internet service providers, beginning with Comcast (whose customers had repeatedly complained of frequent buffering when streaming Netflix), in order to provide the service a direct connection to their networks.[130][131][132] In April 2014, Netflix signed Arrested Development creator Mitchell Hurwitz and his production firm The Hurwitz Company to a multi-year deal to create original projects for the service.[133] In May 2014, Netflix acquired streaming rights to films produced by Sony Pictures Animation.[134] It also quietly began to introduce an updated logo, with a flatter appearance and updated typography.[135] In September 2014, Netflix expanded into six new European markets, including Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, and Switzerland.[136] On September 10, 2014, Netflix participated in Internet Slowdown Day by deliberately slowing down its speed in support of net neutrality regulations in the United States.[137] In October 2014, Netflix announced a four-film deal with Adam Sandler and his Happy Madison Productions.[138] In April 2015, following the launch of Daredevil, Netflix director of content operations Tracy Wright announced that Netflix had added support for audio description (a narration track with aural descriptions of key visual elements for the blind or visually impaired), and had begun to work with its partners to add descriptions to its other original series over time.[139][140] The following year, as part of a settlement with the American Council of the Blind, Netflix agreed to provide descriptions for its original series within 30 days of their premiere, and add screen reader support and the ability to browse content by availability of descriptions.[141] In March 2015, Netflix expanded to Australia and New Zealand.[142][143] In September 2015, Netflix launched in Japan, its first country in Asia.[144][145][146] In October 2015, Netflix launched in Italy, Portugal, and Spain.[147] In January 2016, at the Consumer Electronics Show, Netflix announced a major international expansion of its service into 130 additional countries. It then had become available worldwide except China, Syria, North Korea, Kosovo and Crimea.[148] In May 2016, Netflix created a tool called Fast.com to determine the speed of an Internet connection.[149] It received praise for being "simple" and "easy to use", and does not include online advertising, unlike competitors.[150][151][152] On November 30, 2016, Netflix launched an offline playback feature, allowing users of the Netflix mobile apps on Android or iOS to cache content on their devices in standard or high quality for viewing offline, without an Internet connection.[153][154][155][156] In 2016, Netflix released an estimated 126 original series or films, more than any other network or cable channel.[157] In April 2016, Hastings stated that the company planned to expand its in-house, Los Angeles-based Netflix Studios to grow its output; Hastings ruled out any potential acquisitions of existing studios, stating that "It's been 15 years we've been public and 20 years existing, and we've done no [mergers and acquisitions]. So I think that probably speaks for itself."[158] In February 2017, Netflix signed a music publishing deal with BMG Rights Management, whereby BMG will oversee rights outside of the United States for music associated with Netflix original content. Netflix continues to handle these tasks in-house in the United States.[159] On April 25, 2017, Netflix signed a licensing deal with IQiyi, a Chinese video streaming platform owned by Baidu, to allow selected Netflix original content to be distributed in China on the platform.[160][161] On August 7, 2017, Netflix acquired Millarworld, the creator-owned publishing company of comic book writer Mark Millar. The purchase marked the first corporate acquisition to have been made by Netflix.[162] On August 14, 2017, Netflix entered into an exclusive development deal with Shonda Rhimes and her production company Shondaland.[163] In September 2017, Netflix announced it would offer its low-broadband mobile technology to airlines to provide better in-flight Wi-Fi so that passengers can watch movies on Netflix while on planes.[164] In September 2017, Minister of Heritage Mélanie Joly announced that Netflix had agreed to make a CA$500 million (US$400 million) investment over the next five years in producing content in Canada. The company denied that the deal was intended to result in a tax break.[165][166] Netflix realized this goal by December 2018.[167] In October 2017, Netflix iterated a goal of having half of its library consist of original content by 2019, announcing a plan to invest $8 billion on original content in 2018. There will be a particular focus on films and anime through this investment, with a plan to produce 80 original films and 30 anime series.[168] In October 2017, Netflix introduced the "Skip Intro" feature which allows customers to skip the intros to shows on its platform through a variety of techniques including manual reviewing, audio tagging, and machine learning.[169][170] In November 2017, Netflix signed an exclusive multi-year deal with Orange Is the New Black creator Jenji Kohan.[171] In November 2017, Netflix withdrew from co-hosting a party at the 75th Golden Globe Awards with The Weinstein Company due to the Harvey Weinstein sexual abuse cases.[172] Expansion into international productions (2017–2020) See also: International expansion of Netflix Icon used since 2016 Netflix advertising at Thong Lo BTS station, Bangkok Netflix's booth at the 2017 San Diego Comic-Con Audio logo Duration: 5 seconds.0:05 Netflix's audio logo, adopted in 2019 Problems playing this file? See media help. In November 2017, Netflix announced that it would be making its first original Colombian series, to be executive produced by Ciro Guerra.[173] In December 2017, Netflix signed Stranger Things director-producer Shawn Levy and his production company 21 Laps Entertainment to what sources say is a four-year deal.[174] In 2017, Netflix invested in distributing exclusive stand-up comedy specials from Dave Chappelle, Louis C.K., Chris Rock, Jim Gaffigan, Bill Burr and Jerry Seinfeld.[175] In February 2018, Netflix acquired the rights to The Cloverfield Paradox from Paramount Pictures for $50 million and launched on its service on February 4, 2018, shortly after airing its first trailer during Super Bowl LII. Analysts believed that Netflix's purchase of the film helped to make the film instantly profitable for Paramount compared to a more traditional theatrical release, while Netflix benefited from the surprise reveal.[176][177] Other films acquired by Netflix include international distribution for Paramount's Annihilation[177] and Universal's News of the World and worldwide distribution of Universal's Extinction,[178] Warner Bros.' Mowgli: Legend of the Jungle,[179] Paramount's The Lovebirds[180] and 20th Century Studios' The Woman in the Window.[181] In March, the service ordered Formula 1: Drive to Survive, a racing docuseries following teams in the Formula One world championship.[182] In March 2018, Sky UK announced an agreement with Netflix to integrate Netflix's subscription VOD offering into its pay-TV service. Customers with its high-end Sky Q set-top box and service will be able to see Netflix titles alongside their regular Sky channels.[183] In October 2022, Netflix revealed that its annual revenue from the UK subscribers in 2021 was £1.4bn.[184] In April 2018, Netflix pulled out of the Cannes Film Festival, in response to new rules requiring competition films to have been released in French theaters. The Cannes premiere of Okja in 2017 was controversial, and led to discussions over the appropriateness of films with simultaneous digital releases being screened at an event showcasing theatrical film; audience members also booed the Netflix production logo at the screening. Netflix's attempts to negotiate to allow a limited release in France were curtailed by organizers, as well as French cultural exception law—where theatrically screened films are legally forbidden from being made available via video-on-demand services until at least 36 months after their release.[185][186][187] Besides traditional Hollywood markets as well as from partners like the BBC, Sarandos said the company also looking to expand investments in non-traditional foreign markets due to the growth of viewers outside of North America. At the time, this included programs such as Dark from Germany, Ingobernable from Mexico and 3% from Brazil.[188][189][190] On May 22, 2018, former president, Barack Obama, and his wife, Michelle Obama, signed a deal to produce docu-series, documentaries and features for Netflix under the Obamas' newly formed production company, Higher Ground Productions.[191][192] In June 2018, Netflix announced a partnership with Telltale Games to port its adventure games to the service in a streaming video format, allowing simple controls through a television remote.[193][194] The first game, Minecraft: Story Mode, was released in November 2018.[195] In July 2018, Netflix earned the most Emmy nominations of any network for the first time with 112 nods. On August 27, 2018, the company signed a five-year exclusive overall deal with international best–selling author Harlan Coben.[196] On the same day, the company inked an overall deal with Gravity Falls creator Alex Hirsch.[197] In October 2018, Netflix paid under $30 million to acquire Albuquerque Studios (ABQ Studios), a $91 million film and TV production facility with eight sound stages in Albuquerque, New Mexico, for its first U.S. production hub, pledging to spend over $1 billion over the next decade to create one of the largest film studios in North America.[198][199] In November 2018, Paramount Pictures signed a multi-picture film deal with Netflix, making Paramount the first major film studio to sign a deal with Netflix.[200] A sequel to AwesomenessTV's To All the Boys I've Loved Before was released on Netflix under the title To All the Boys: P.S. I Still Love You as part of the agreement.[201] In December 2018, the company announced a partnership with ESPN Films on a television documentary chronicling Michael Jordan and the 1997–98 Chicago Bulls season titled The Last Dance. It was released internationally on Netflix and became available for streaming in the United States three months after a broadcast airing on ESPN.[202][203] In January 2019, Sex Education made its debut as a Netflix original series, receiving much critical acclaim.[204] On January 22, 2019, Netflix sought and was approved for membership into the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), making it the first streaming service to join the association.[205] In February 2019, The Haunting creator Mike Flanagan joined frequent collaborator Trevor Macy as a partner in Intrepid Pictures and the duo signed an exclusive overall deal with Netflix to produce television content.[206] On May 9, 2019, Netflix contracted with Dark Horse Entertainment to make television series and films based on comics from Dark Horse Comics.[207] In July 2019, Netflix announced that it would be opening a hub at Shepperton Studios as part of a deal with Pinewood Group.[208] In early-August 2019, Netflix negotiated an exclusive multi-year film and television deal with Game of Thrones creators and showrunners David Benioff and D.B. Weiss.[209][210][211][212][213] The first Netflix production created by Benioff and Weiss was planned as an adaptation of Liu Cixin's science fiction novel The Three-Body Problem, part of the Remembrance of Earth's Past trilogy.[214] On September 30, 2019, in addition to renewing Stranger Things for a fourth season, Netflix signed The Duffer Brothers to an overall deal covering future film and television projects for the service.[215] On November 13, 2019, Netflix and Nickelodeon entered into a multi-year agreement to produce several original animated feature films and television series based on Nickelodeon's library of characters. This agreement expanded on their existing relationship, in which new specials based on the past Nickelodeon series Invader Zim and Rocko's Modern Life (Invader Zim: Enter the Florpus and Rocko's Modern Life: Static Cling respectively) were released by Netflix. Other new projects planned under the team-up include a music project featuring Squidward Tentacles from the animated television series SpongeBob SquarePants, and films based on The Loud House and Rise of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles.[216][217][218] The agreement with Disney ended in 2019 due to the launch of Disney+, with its Marvel productions moving exclusively to the service in 2022.[219][220] In November 2019, Netflix announced that it had signed a long-term lease to save the Paris Theatre, the last single-screen movie theater in Manhattan. The company oversaw several renovations at the theater, including new seats and a concession stand.[221][222][223] Ted Sarandos, longtime CCO and named co-CEO in 2020 In January 2020, Netflix announced a new four-film deal with Adam Sandler worth up to $275 million.[224] On February 25, 2020, Netflix formed partnerships with six Japanese creators to produce an original Japanese anime project. This partnership includes manga creator group CLAMP, mangaka Shin Kibayashi, mangaka Yasuo Ohtagaki, novelist and film director Otsuichi, novelist Tow Ubutaka, and manga creator Mari Yamazaki.[225] On March 4, 2020, ViacomCBS announced that it will be producing two spin-off films based on SpongeBob SquarePants for Netflix.[226] On April 7, 2020, Peter Chernin's Chernin Entertainment made a multi-year first-look deal with Netflix to make films.[227] On May 29, 2020, Netflix announced the acquisition of Grauman's Egyptian Theatre from the American Cinematheque to use as a special events venue.[228][229][230] In July 2020, Netflix appointed Sarandos as co-CEO.[231][232] In July 2020, Netflix invested in Black Mirror creators Charlie Brooker and Annabel Jones' new production outfit Broke And Bones.[233] In September 2020, Netflix signed a multi-million dollar deal with the Duke and duch*ess of Sussex. Harry and Meghan agreed to a multi-year deal promising to create TV shows, films, and children's content as part of their commitment to stepping away from the duties of the royal family.[234][235] In September 2020, Hastings released a book about Netflix culture titled No Rules Rules: Netflix and the Culture of Reinvention, which was coauthored by Erin Meyer.[236] In December 2020, Netflix signed a first-look deal with Millie Bobby Brown to develop and star in several projects including a potential action franchise.[237] Expansion into gaming, Squid Game, end of DVDs (2021–present) In March 2021, Netflix earned the most Academy Award nominations of any studio, with 36. Netflix won seven Academy Awards, which was the most by any studio. Later that year, Netflix also won more Emmys than any other network or studio with 44 wins, tying the record for most Emmys won in a single year set by CBS in 1974. On April 8, 2021, Sony Pictures Entertainment announced an agreement for Netflix to hold the U.S. pay television window rights to its releases beginning in 2022, replacing Starz and expanding upon an existing agreement with Sony Pictures Animation. The agreement also includes a first-look deal for any future direct-to-streaming films being produced by Sony Pictures, with Netflix required to commit to a minimum number of them.[238][239][240] On April 27, 2021, Netflix announced that it was opening its first Canadian headquarters in Toronto.[241] The company also announced that it would open an office in Sweden as well as Rome and Istanbul to increase its original content in those regions.[242] In early-June, Netflix hosted a first-ever week-long virtual event called "Geeked Week," where it shared exclusive news, new trailers, cast appearances and more about upcoming genre titles like The Witcher, The Cuphead Show!, and The Sandman.[243] On June 7, 2021, Jennifer Lopez's Nuyorican Productions signed a multi-year first-look deal with Netflix spanning feature films, TV series, and unscripted content, with an emphasis on projects that support diverse female actors, writers, and filmmakers.[244] On June 10, 2021, Netflix announced it was launching an online store for curated products tied to the Netflix brand and shows such as Stranger Things and The Witcher.[245][246] On June 21, 2021, Steven Spielberg's Amblin Partners signed a deal with Netflix to release multiple new feature films for the streaming service.[247][248] On June 30, 2021, Powerhouse Animation Studios (the studio behind Netflix's Castlevania) announced signing a first-look deal with the streamer to produce more animated series.[249] In July 2021, Netflix hired Mike Verdu, a former executive from Electronic Arts and Facebook, as vice president of game development, along with plans to add video games by 2022.[250] Netflix announced plans to release mobile games which would be included in subscribers' plans to the service.[251] Trial offerings were first launched for Netflix users in Poland in August 2021, offering premium mobile games based on Stranger Things including Stranger Things 3: The Game, for free to subscribers through the Netflix mobile app.[252] On July 14, 2021, Netflix signed a first-look deal with Joey King, star of The Kissing Booth franchise, in which King will produce and develop films for Netflix via her All The King's Horses production company.[253] On July 21, 2021, Zack Snyder, director of Netflix's Army of the Dead, announced he had signed his production company The Stone Quarry to a first-look deal with Netflix; his upcoming projects include a sequel to Army of the Dead and a sci-fi adventure film titled Rebel Moon.[254][255][256][257] In 2019, he agreed to produce an anime-style web series inspired by Norse mythology.[258][259] As of August 2021, Netflix Originals made up 40% of Netflix's overall library in the United States.[260] The company announced that "TUDUM: A Netflix Global Fan Event", a three-hour virtual behind the scenes featuring first-look reveals for 100 of the streamer's series, films and specials, would have its inaugural show in late September 2021.[261][262] According to Netflix, the show garnered 25.7 million views across Netflix's 29 Netflix YouTube channels, Twitter, Twitch, Facebook, TikTok and Tudum.com.[263] Also in September, the company announced The Queen's Ball: A Bridgerton Experience, launching in 2022 in Los Angeles, Chicago, Montreal, and Washington, D.C..[264] Squid Game, a South Korean survival drama created and produced by Hwang Dong-hyuk, rapidly became the service's most-watched show within a week of its launch in many markets on September 17, 2021, including Korea, the U.S. and the United Kingdom.[190] Within its first 28 days on the service, Squid Game drew more than 111 million viewers, surpassing Bridgerton and becoming Netflix's most-watched show.[265] On September 20, 2021, Netflix signed a long-term lease with Aviva Investors to operate and expand the Longcross Studios in Surrey, UK.[266] On September 21, 2021, Netflix announced that it would acquire the Roald Dahl Story Company, which manages the rights to Roald Dahl's stories and characters, for an undisclosed price and would operate it as an independent company.[267][268][269][270] The company acquired Night School Studio, an independent video game developer, on September 28, 2021.[271] Netflix officially launched mobile games on November 2, 2021, for Android users around the world. Through the app, subscribers had free access to five games, including two previously made Stranger Things titles. Netflix intends to add more games to this service over time.[272] On November 9, the collection launched for iOS.[273] Some games in the collection require an active internet connection to play, while others will be available offline. Netflix Kids' accounts will not have games available.[274] On October 13, 2021, Netflix announced the launch of the Netflix Book Club, where readers will hear about new books, films, and series adaptations and have exclusive access to each book's adaptation process. Netflix will partner with Starbucks to bring the book club to life via a social series called But Have You Read the Book?. Uzo Aduba will serve as the inaugural host of the series and announce monthly book selections set to be adapted by the streamer. Aduba will also speak with the cast, creators, and authors about the book adaptation process over a cup of coffee at Starbucks.[275][276] Through October 2021, Netflix commonly reported viewership for its programming based on the number of viewers or households that watched a show in a given period (such as the first 28 days from its premiere) for at least two minutes. On the announcement of its quarterly earnings in October 2021, the company stated that it would switch its viewership metrics to measuring the number of hours that a show was watched, including rewatches, which the company said was closer to the measurements used in linear broadcast television, and thus "our members and the industry can better measure success in the streaming world."[277] On November 16, 2021, Netflix announced the launch of "Top10 on Netflix.com", a new website with weekly global and country lists of the most popular titles on their service based on their new viewership metrics.[278] On November 22, 2021, Netflix announced that it would acquire Scanline VFX, the visual effects and animation company behind Cowboy Bebop and Stranger Things.[279] On the same day, Roberto Patino signed a deal with Netflix and established his own production banner, Analog Inc., in partnership with the company. Patino's first project under the deal is a series adaptation of Image Comics' Nocterra.[280] On December 6, 2021, Netflix and Stage 32 announced that they have teamed up the workshops at the Creating Content for the Global Marketplace program.[281] On December 7, 2021, Netflix partnered with IllumiNative, a woman-led non-profit organization, for the Indigenous Producers Training Program.[282][283] On December 9, 2021, Netflix announced the launch of "Tudum," an official companion website that offers news, exclusive interviews and behind-the-scenes videos for its original television shows and films.[284] On December 13, 2021, Netflix signed a multi-year overall deal with Kalinda Vazquez.[285] On December 16, 2021, Netflix signed a multi-year creative partnership with Spike Lee and his production company 40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks to develop film and television projects.[286] In compliance with the EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive and its implementation in France, Netflix reached commitments with French broadcasting authorities and film guilds, as required by law, to invest a specific amount of its annual revenue into original French films and series. These films must be theatrically released and would not be allowed to be carried on Netflix until 15 months after their release.[287][288] In January 2022, Netflix ordered additional sports docuseries from Drive to Survive producers Box to Box Films, including a series that would follow PGA Tour golfers, and another that would follow professional tennis players on the ATP and WTA Tour circuits.[289][290] The company announced plans to acquire Next Games in March 2022 for €65 million as part of Netflix's expansions into gaming. Next Games had developed the mobile title Stranger Things: Puzzle Tales as well as two The Walking Dead mobile games.[291] Later in the month, Netflix also acquired the Texas-based mobile game developer, Boss Fight Entertainment, for an undisclosed sum.[292] On March 15, 2022, Netflix announced a partnership with Dr. Seuss Enterprises to produce five new series and specials based on Seuss properties following the success of Green Eggs and Ham.[293][294] On March 29, 2022, Netflix announced that it would open an office in Poland to serve as a hub for its original productions across Central and Eastern Europe.[295] On March 30, 2022, Netflix extended its lease agreement with Martini Film Studios, just outside Vancouver, Canada, for another five years.[296] On March 31, 2022, Netflix ordered a docuseries that would follow teams in the 2022 Tour de France, which would also be co-produced by Box to Box Films.[297] Following the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Netflix suspended its operations and future projects in Russia.[298][4] It also announced that it would not comply with a proposed directive by Roskomnadzor requiring all internet streaming services with more than 100,000 subscribers to integrate the major free-to-air channels (which are primarily state-owned).[299] A month later, ex-Russian subscribers filed a class action lawsuit against Netflix.[300][301] Netflix stated that 100 million households globally were sharing passwords to their account with others, and that Canada and the United States accounted for 30 million of them. Following these announcements, Netflix's stock price fell by 35 percent.[302][303][304][305][306] By June 2022, Netflix had laid off 450 full-time and contract employees as part of the company's plan to trim costs amid lower than expected subscriber growth.[307][308][309][310] On April 13, 2022, Netflix released the series Our Great National Parks, which was hosted and narrated by former US President Barack Obama.[311] It also partnered with Group Effort Initiative, a company founded by Ryan Reynolds and Blake Lively, to provide opportunities behind the camera for those in underrepresented communities.[312] On the same day, Netflix partnered with Lebanon-based Arab Fund For Arts And Culture for supporting the Arab female filmmakers. It will provide a one-time grant of $250,000 to female producers and directors in the Arab world through the company's Fund for Creative Equity.[313] Also on the same day, Netflix announced an Exploding Kittens mobile card game tied to a new animated TV series, which will launch in May.[314] Netflix formed a creative partnership with J. Miles Dale.[315] The company also formed a partnership with Japan's Studio Colorido, signing a multi-film deal to boost their anime content in Asia. The streaming giant is said to co-produce three feature films with the studio, the first of which will premiere in September 2022.[316] On April 28, 2022, the company launched its inaugural Netflix Is a Joke comedy festival, featuring more than 250 shows over 12 nights at 30-plus locations across Los Angeles, including the first-ever stand-up show at Dodger Stadium.[317][318] The first volume of Stranger Things 4 logged Netflix's biggest premiere weekend ever for an original series with 286.79 million hours viewed.[319] This was preceded by a new Stranger Things interactive experience hosted in New York City that was developed by the show's creators.[320] After the release of the second volume of Stranger Things 4 on July 1, 2022, it became Netflix's second title to receive more than one billion hours viewed.[321] On July 19, 2022, Netflix announced plans to acquire Australian animation studio Animal Logic.[322][323] On September 5, 2022, Netflix opened an office in Warsaw, Poland responsible for the service's operations in 28 markets in Central and Eastern Europe.[324] On October 4, 2022, Netflix have signed a creative partnership with Andrea Berloff and John Gatins.[325] On October 11, 2022, Netflix signed up to the Broadcasters' Audience Research Board for external measurement of viewership in the UK.[326] On October 12, 2022, Netflix signed to build a production complex at Fort Monmouth in Eatontown, New Jersey.[327] On October 18, 2022, Netflix began exploring a cloud gaming offering and opened a new gaming studio in Southern California.[328] On December 12, 2022, Netflix announced that sixty-percent of its subscribers had watched a Korean drama.[329][330] CEO Ted Sarandos attributed the increase in viewership of Korean content among Americans to Korean films and dramas being "often unpredictable" and catching "the American audience by surprise".[331][332] On January 10, 2023, Netflix announced plans to open an engineering hub in its Warsaw office. The hub is to provide Netflix's creative partners with software solutions in the production of films and series.[333] On February 1, 2023, Netflix announced spatial audio is now available on more than 700 of its top watched titles, including Stranger Things, The Watcher, Wednesday, and Knives Out: Glass Onion.[334] On March 4, 2023, the Chris Rock: Selective Outrage standup special was Netflix's first live global streaming event.[335] On April 18, 2023, Netflix announced that it will discontinue their DVD-by-mail service on September 29.[336] Netflix reworked its viewership metrics again in June 2023. Viewership of shows were measured during the first 91 days of availability, instead of the first 28 days, and now are based on the total viewership hours divided by the total hours of the show itself. This provided more equal considerations for shorter shows and movies compared to longer ones.[337] In August 2023, the company announced Netflix Stories, a collection of interactive narrative games from Netflix series and films such as Love is Blind, Money Heist and Virgin River.[338] Netflix discontinued its DVD mailing service on September 29, 2023, in favor of its streaming business. Users of the service were able to keep the DVDs that they had received. Over its lifetime the service had sent out over 5 billion shipments.[339][340] In October 2023, Eunice Kim was promoted to Chief Product Officer and Elizabeth Stone was promoted to Chief Technology Officer.[341] That same month, Netflix and Skydance Media entered multi-year pact to develop and produce animated films, ending Skydance's partnership with Apple. First up for release under the deal is Spellbound, which is anticipated to premiere in 2024.[342] Netflix will also take over distribution of preexisting Skydance Animation titles, including Ray Gunn and Pookoo.[343] Availability and access Global availability Further information: International expansion of Netflix Availability of Netflix, as of March 2022: Available Unavailable (China,[344] North Korea, Russia[345] and Syria.) Netflix is available in every country and territory except for China, North Korea, Crimea, Syria and Russia.[346] In January 2016, Netflix announced it would begin VPN blocking since it can be used to watch videos from a country where they are unavailable.[347] The result of the VPN block is that people can only watch videos available worldwide and other videos are hidden from search results.[348] Variety is present on Netflix. Hebrew and right-to-left interface orientation, which is a common localization strategy in many markets, are what define the Israeli user interface's localization, and in some regions, Netflix offers a more affordable mobile-only subscription.[349] Subscriptions See also: Netflix membership Customers can subscribe to one of three plans; the difference in plans relates to video resolution, the number of simultaneous streams, and the number of devices to which content can be downloaded.[350] At the end of Q1 2022, Netflix estimated that 100 million households globally were sharing passwords to their account with others.[305] In March 2022, Netflix began to charge a fee for additional users in Chile, Peru, and Costa Rica to attempt to control account sharing.[303][304][305] On July 18, 2022, Netflix announced that it would test the account sharing feature in more countries, including Argentina, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras.[351] On October 17, Netflix launched Profile Transfer to help end account sharing.[352] On July 13, 2022, Netflix announced a partnership with Microsoft to launch an advertising-supported subscription plan.[353] Netflix's planned advertising tier would not allow subscribers to download content like the existing ad-free platform.[354] On July 20, 2022, it was announced that the advertising-supported tier would be coming to Netflix in 2023 but it would not feature the full library of content.[355] Netflix US launched with 5.1% of the library unavailable including 60 Netflix Originals.[356] In September, Netflix announced that the launch would be moved up to November 1, 2022,[357][358] but in October, the launch date was changed to November 3, 2022. The ad-supported plan is called "Basic with Ads" and it costs $6.99 per month in the United States.[359] On February 24, 2023, Netflix cut subscription prices in more than 30 countries around the world to attract more subscribers from those countries. Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Croatia, Venezuela, Kenya, and Iran are on the list of countries where the cost for a subscription will be reduced.[360] In the same month stronger anti-password-sharing rules were expanded to Canada, New Zealand, Portugal, and Spain.[361] In May 2023, these measures were further expanded to United States and Brazil subscribers.[362][363][364] In July 2023, Netflix added 5.9 million subscribers for the second quarter of the year for a total of 238.39 million subscribers overall. The United States and Canada accounted for 1.2 million subscribers which was the largest regional quarterly gain since 2021.[7][365] Device support Netflix can be accessed via a web browser, while Netflix apps are available on various platforms, including Blu-ray players, tablet computers, mobile phones, smart TVs, digital media players, and video game consoles, with the app being available on Xbox 360,[366] PlayStation 3,[367] Xbox One, PlayStation 4, Xbox Series X/S and PlayStation 5 consoles. A Sharp Aquos remote control with a Netflix button Previously, it was also available on PlayStation 2,[368] Nintendo Wii,[369] Nintendo 3DS, Wii U,[370] PlayStation Vita and PlayStation TV.[371][372] In addition, a growing number of multichannel television providers, including cable television and IPTV services, have added Netflix apps accessible within their own set-top boxes, sometimes with the ability for its content (along with those of other online video services) to be presented within a unified search interface alongside linear television programming as an "all-in-one" solution.[373][374][375][376] The maximum video resolution supported on computers is dependent on the DRM systems available on a particular operating system and web browser.[377] Operating System Web Browser DRM system Maximum allowed video resolution Microsoft Windows 7 or later MacOS 10.11 or later Linux (dependent on distribution variant) Google Chrome, Firefox, Opera Widevine 720p (with Widevine L1) Microsoft Windows 10 or later Microsoft Edge PlayReady 4K (device must fulfil hardware requirements)[378] MacOS 10.11 through MacOS 10.15 Apple Safari FairPlay 1080p MacOS 11 or later Apple Safari FairPlay 4K Chrome OS Google Chrome Widevine 1080p (with Widevine L1) Android mobile app Widevine 480p (devices with Widevine L3 only) 1080p (devices with Widevine L1 certification)[379] iOS mobile app FairPlay 1080p[380] Content Original programming Netflix Original Movies Further information on Netflix original programming: Lists of Netflix original television series (both current, and ended), original films, and stand-up comedy specials Further information on Netflix international offerings: Lists of Netflix exclusive international distribution programming "Netflix Originals" are content that is produced, co-produced, or distributed exclusively by Netflix. Netflix funds its original shows differently than other TV networks when they sign a project, providing the money upfront and immediately ordering two seasons of most series,[381] and keeping more future revenue opportunities from (such as possible syndication, merchandising, etc.) on commercially successful series.[157][382] Over the years, Netflix output ballooned to a level unmatched by any television network or streaming service. According to Variety Insight, Netflix produced a total of 240 new original shows and movies in 2018, then climbed to 371 in 2019, a figure "greater than the number of original series that the entire U.S. TV industry released in 2005."[383] The Netflix budget allocated to production increased annually, reaching $13.6 billion in 2021 and projected to hit $18.9 billion by 2025, a figure that once again overshadowed any of its competitors.[384] As of August 2022, original productions made up 50% of Netflix's overall library in the United States.[385] Film and television deals Netflix has exclusive pay TV deals with several studios. The deals give Netflix exclusive streaming rights while adhering to the structures of traditional pay TV terms. Distributors that have licensed content to Netflix include Warner Bros., Universal Pictures, Sony Pictures Entertainment and previously The Walt Disney Studios. Netflix also holds current and back-catalog rights to television programs distributed by Walt Disney Television, DreamWorks Classics, Kino International, Warner Bros. Television and Paramount Global Content Distribution, along with titles from other companies such as Hasbro Entertainment and Funimation. Formerly, the streaming service also held rights to select television programs distributed by NBCUniversal Television Distribution, Sony Pictures Television and 20th Century Fox Television. Netflix negotiated to distribute animated films from Universal that HBO declined to acquire, such as The Lorax, ParaNorman, and Minions.[386] Netflix holds exclusive streaming rights to the film library of Studio Ghibli (with the exception of Grave of the Fireflies) worldwide except in the U.S. and Japan as part of an agreement signed with Ghibli's international sales holder Wild Bunch in 2020.[387] Gaming In July 2021, Netflix hired Mike Verdu, a former executive from Electronic Arts and Facebook, as vice president of game development, along with plans to add video games by 2022.[388] Netflix announced plans to release mobile games which would be included in subscribers' plans to the service.[389] Trial offerings were first launched for Netflix users in Poland in August 2021, offering premium mobile games based on Stranger Things including Stranger Things 3: The Game, for free to subscribers through the Netflix mobile app.[390] Netflix officially launched mobile games on November 2, 2021, for Android users around the world. Through the app, subscribers had free access to five games, including two previously made Stranger Things titles. Netflix intends to add more games to this service over time.[391] On November 9, the collection launched for iOS.[392] Verdu said in October 2022 that besides continuing to expand their portfolio of games, they were also interested in cloud gaming options.[393] To support the games effort, Netflix began acquiring and forming a number of studios. The company acquired Night School Studio, an independent video game developer, in September 2021.[394] Netflix announced plans to acquire Next Games in March 2022 for €65 million as part of Netflix's expansions into gaming. Next Games had developed the mobile title Stranger Things: Puzzle Tales as well as two The Walking Dead mobile games.[395] Later in the month, Netflix also acquired the Texas-based mobile game developer, Boss Fight Entertainment, for an undisclosed sum.[292] Netflix opened a mobile game studio in Helsinki, Finland in September 2022,[396] and a new studio, their fifth total, in southern California in October 2022,[393] alongside the acquisition of Spry Fox in Seattle.[397] Technology Content delivery Netflix settlement freely peers with Internet service providers (ISPs) directly and at common Internet exchange points. In June 2012, a custom content delivery network, Open Connect, was announced.[398] For larger ISPs with over 100,000 subscribers, Netflix offers free Netflix Open Connect Computer appliances that cache their content within the ISPs' data centers or networks to further reduce Internet transit costs.[399][400] By August 2016, Netflix closed its last physical data center, but continued to develop its Open Connect technology.[401] A 2016 study at the University of London detected 233 individual Open Connect locations on over six continents, with the largest amount of traffic in the US, followed by Mexico.[402][403] As of July 2017, Netflix series and movies accounted for more than a third of all prime-time download Internet traffic in North America.[404] API On October 1, 2008, Netflix offered access to its service via a public application programming interface (API).[405] It allowed access to data for all Netflix titles, and allows users to manage their movie queues. The API was free and allowed commercial use.[406] In June 2012, Netflix began to restrict the availability of its public API.[407] Netflix instead focused on a small number of known partners using private interfaces, since most traffic came from those private interfaces.[408] In June 2014, Netflix announced it would be retiring the public API; it became effective November 14, 2014.[409] Netflix then partnered with the developers of eight services deemed the most valuable, including Instant Watcher, Fanhattan, Yidio and Nextguide.[410] Awards Further information: List of accolades received by Netflix On July 18, 2013, Netflix earned the first Primetime Emmy Awards nominations for original streaming programs at the 65th Primetime Emmy Awards. Three of its series, Arrested Development, Hemlock Grove and House of Cards, earned a combined 14 nominations (nine for House of Cards, three for Arrested Development and two for Hemlock Grove).[411] The House of Cards episode "Chapter 1" received four nominations for both the 65th Primetime Emmy Awards and 65th Primetime Creative Arts Emmy Awards, becoming the first episode of a streaming television series to receive a major Primetime Emmy Award nomination. With its win for Outstanding Cinematography for a Single-Camera Series, "Chapter 1" became the first episode from a streaming service to be awarded an Emmy.[411][412][413] David Fincher's win for Directing for a Drama Series for House of Cards made the episode the first from a streaming service to win a Primetime Emmy.[414] On November 6, 2013, Netflix earned its first Grammy nomination when You've Got Time by Regina Spektor — the main title theme song for Orange Is the New Black — was nominated for Best Song Written for Visual Media.[415] On December 12, 2013, the network earned six nominations for Golden Globe Awards, including four for House of Cards.[416] Among those nominations was Wright for Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Drama for her portrayal of Claire Underwood, which she won. With the accolade, Wright became the first actress to win a Golden Globe for a streaming television series. It also marked Netflix's first major acting award.[417][418][419] House of Cards and Orange is the New Black also won Peabody Awards in 2013.[420] On January 16, 2014, Netflix became the first streaming service to earn an Academy Award nomination when The Square was nominated for Best Documentary Feature.[421] On July 10, 2014, Netflix received 31 Emmy nominations. Among other nominations, House of Cards received nominations for Outstanding Drama Series, Outstanding Directing in a Drama Series and Outstanding Writing in a Drama Series. Kevin Spacey and Robin Wright were nominated for Outstanding Lead Actor and Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series. Orange is the New Black was nominated in the comedy categories, earning nominations for Outstanding Comedy Series, Outstanding Writing for a Comedy Series and Outstanding Directing for a Comedy Series. Taylor Schilling, Kate Mulgrew, and Uzo Aduba were respectively nominated for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Comedy Series, Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series and Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series (the latter was for Aduba's recurring role in season one, as she was promoted to series regular for the show's second season).[422] Netflix got the largest share of 2016 Emmy Award nominations, with 16 major nominations. However, streaming shows only got 24 nominations out of a total of 139, falling significantly behind cable. The 16 Netflix nominees were: House of Cards with Kevin Spacey, A Very Murray Christmas with Bill Murray, Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt, Master of None, and Bloodline.[423] Stranger Things received 19 nominations at the 2017 Primetime Emmy Awards, while The Crown received 13 nominations.[424] In December 2017, Netflix was awarded PETA's Company of the Year for promoting animal rights movies and documentaries like Forks Over Knives and What the Health.[425][426] At the 90th Academy Awards, held on March 4, 2018, the film Icarus, distributed by Netflix, won its first Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature Film. During his remarks backstage, director and writer Bryan Fogel remarked that Netflix had "single-handedly changed the documentary world." Icarus had its premiere at the 2017 Sundance Film Festival and was bought by Netflix for $5 million, one of the biggest deals ever for a non-fiction film.[427] Netflix became the network whose programs received more nomination at the 2018 Primetime and Creative Arts Emmy Awards with 112 nominations, therefore breaking HBO's 17-years record as a network whose programs received more nomination at the Emmys, which received 108 nominations.[428][429] On January 22, 2019, films distributed by Netflix scored 15 nominations for the 91st Academy Awards, including Academy Award for Best Picture for Alfonso Cuarón's Roma, which was nominated for 10 awards.[430] The 15 nominations equal the total nominations films distributed by Netflix had received in previous years. In 2020, Netflix received 20 TV nominations and films distributed by Netflix also got 22 film nominations at the 78th Golden Globe Awards. It secured three out of the five nominations for best drama TV series for The Crown, Ozark and Ratched and four of the five nominations for best actress in a TV series: Olivia Colman, Emma Corrin, Laura Linney and Sarah Paulson.[431][432] In 2020, Netflix earned 24 Academy Award nominations, marking the first time a streaming service led all studios.[433] Films and programs distributed by Netflix received 30 nominations at the 2021 Screen Actors Guild Awards, more than any other distribution company, where their distributed films and programs won seven awards including best motion picture for The Trial of the Chicago 7 and best TV drama for The Crown.[434][435] Netflix also received the most nominations of any studio at the 93rd Academy Awards – 35 total nominations with 7 award wins.[436][437] In February 2022, The Power of the Dog, a gritty western distributed by Netflix and directed by Jane Campion, received 12 nominations, including Best Picture, for the 94th annual Academy Awards. Films distributed by the streamer received a total of 72 nominations.[438] Campion became the third female to receive the Best Director award, winning her second Oscar for The Power of the Dog.[439] At the 50th International Emmy Awards, Netflix original Sex Education won Best Comedy Series.[440] Later that year, Netflix received 26 Emmy Awards including six for Squid Game. The Squid Game wins for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series and Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series were the first-ever for a non-English language series in those categories.[441] In March 2023, Netflix won six Academy Awards including four for All Quiet on the Western Front which was the most awarded Netflix film in its history. Guillermo del Toro's Pinocchio was the first streaming film to named Best Animated Feature and The Elephant Whisperers was the first Indian-produced film to receive Best Documentary Short Film.[442] Netflix received 103 Emmy nominations including 13 each for the limited series Beef and Dahmer – Monster: The Jeffrey Dahmer Story.[443] Criticism Main article: Criticism of Netflix Netflix has been subject to criticism from various groups and individuals as its popularity and market reach increased in the 2010s. Customers have complained about price increases in Netflix offerings dating back to the company's decision to separate its DVD rental and streaming services, which was quickly reversed. As Netflix increased its streaming output, it has faced calls to limit accessibility to graphic violence and include viewer advisories for issues such as sensationalism and promotion of pseudoscience. Netflix's content has also been criticized by disability rights movement advocates for lack of closed captioning quality.[444] Some media organizations and competitors have criticized Netflix for selectively releasing ratings and viewer numbers of its original programming. The company has made claims boasting about viewership records without providing data to substantiate its successes or using problematic estimation methods.[445] In March 2020, some government agencies called for Netflix and other streamers to limit services due to increased broadband and energy consumption as use of the platform increased. In response, the company announced it would reduce bit rate across all streams in Europe, thus decreasing Netflix traffic on European networks by around 25 percent. These same steps were later taken in India.[446] In May 2022, Netflix's shareholder Imperium Irrevocable Trust filed a lawsuit against the company for violating the U.S. securities laws.[447] See also Film portal icon Television portal Companies portal San Francisco Bay Area portal List of streaming media services References "Netflix is now available in Hindi". Netflix (Press release). August 9, 2020. "APA KABAR INDONESIA? Avriel like Essence". Netflix (Press release). October 18, 2018. "Where is Netflix available?". Netflix. Archived from the original on July 7, 2017. Lang, Brent (March 6, 2022). "Netflix Suspends Service in Russia Amid Invasion of Ukraine". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved March 6, 2022. "Shareholder Letter" (PDF). October 18, 2023. Retrieved October 18, 2023. "Netflix - Overview - Profile". ir.netflix.net. Retrieved June 1, 2023. Lauren Forristal (July 19, 2023). "Netflix gains nearly 6M subscribers as paid sharing soars". TechCrunch. 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Retrieved February 9, 2022. Pulver, Andrew (March 27, 2022). "Jane Campion wins best director Oscar for The Power of the Dog". The Guardian. "International Emmys 2022: The Complete Winners List". Variety. November 22, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022. Kase Wickman (September 13, 2022). "Emmys 2022 Winners: See the Full List Here". Variety Fair. Sarah Whitten; Mike Calia (March 13, 2023). "Oscar 2023: 'Everything Everywhere All at Once' wins best picture, six other awards". CNBC. Jordan Moreau; Michael Schneider (July 12, 2023). "Emmys 2023: The Complete Nominations List". Variety. Cooper, Kelly-Leigh (June 29, 2018). "Queer Eye host backs Netflix subtitle change". BBC News. Retrieved July 8, 2019. "Netflix execs say they'll finally start releasing viewership data soon". The Verge. April 17, 2019. Retrieved June 2, 2019. "Netflix finds way to maintain streaming quality in India despite heavy traffic". Livemint. March 24, 2020. Retrieved May 17, 2023. Cho, Winston (May 4, 2022). "Netflix Hit With Shareholder Lawsuit After Disclosing Subscriber Loss". The Hollywood Reporter. Further reading Hastings, Reed (2020). No Rules Rules: Netflix and the Culture of Reinvention. Penguin Press. ISBN 978-1-984877-86-4. McDonald, Kevin; Smith-Rowsey, Daniel (2016). The Netflix Effect: Technology and Entertainment in the 21st Century (1st ed.). Bloomsbury Academic & Professional. ISBN 978-1-5013-0944-1. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Netflix. 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Screen Related AustraliaCanadaNew Zealand Categories: NetflixAndroid (operating system) softwareInternet properties established in 2007Internet television streaming servicesIOS softwarePlayStation 4 softwarePlayStation 5 softwareSubscription video on demand servicesXbox One softwareXbox Series X and Series S software 1899 (TV series) Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 1899 Promotional poster Genre Period drama Mystery Supernatural horror Science fiction Created by Jantje Friese Baran bo Odar Written by Jantje Friese Dario Madrona López Gallego Emma Ko Jerome Bucchan-Nelson Juliana Lima Dehne Emil Nygaard Albertsen Directed by Baran bo Odar Starring Emily Beecham Aneurin Barnard Andreas Pietschmann Miguel Bernardeau José Pimentão Isabella Wei Gabby Wong Yann Gael Mathilde Ollivier Jonas Bloquet Rosalie Craig Maciej Musiał Clara Rosager Lucas Lynggaard Tønnesen Maria Erwolter Alexandre Willaume Tino Mewes Isaak Dentler Fflyn Edwards Anton Lesser Theme music composer Grace Slick Opening theme "White Rabbit" by Eliot Sumner Composer Ben Frost Country of origin Germany Original languages English Spanish French Polish German Danish Portuguese Cantonese No. of seasons 1 No. of episodes 8 Production Executive producers Jantje Friese Baran bo Odar Philipp Klausing Producer Pat Tookey-Dickson Production locations Germany United Kingdom Cinematography Nikolaus Summerer Running time 50–62 minutes Production company Dark Ways Original release Network Netflix Release 17 November 2022 1899 is a multilingual German period mystery-science fiction television series created by Jantje Friese and Baran bo Odar. It premiered on Netflix in November 2022 and received generally favourable reviews. The series was cancelled in January 2023. Premise Set in 1899, the series follows a group of European emigrants travelling from Southampton, UK on a steamship named Kerberos to start new lives in New York City, US. Cast and characters Main Emily Beecham as Maura Henriette Franklin/Singleton, a neurologist and one of the first female doctors in the UK, travelling alone to America Aneurin Barnard as Daniel Solace, a mysterious man who boards the Kerberos. Andreas Pietschmann as Eyk Larsen, the ship's weather-beaten captain Miguel Bernardeau as Ángel, a wealthy Spaniard traveling with Ramiro José Pimentão as Ramiro, a faux Portuguese priest traveling with Ángel Isabella Wei as Ling Yi, a mysterious young woman from Hong Kong, traveling with Yuk Je Gabby Wong as Yuk Je, a middle-aged woman from Hong Kong traveling with Ling Yi Yann Gael [fr] as Jérôme, a French stowaway Mathilde Ollivier as Clémence, a young woman from the Paris elite, accompanied by her new husband Lucien Jonas Bloquet as Lucien, an upper class Parisian, and former Lieutenant of the French Foreign Legion, newly married to his wife Clémence Rosalie Craig as Virginia Wilson, a sociable, wealthy British woman Maciej Musiał as Olek, a Polish stoker on his way to New York Clara Rosager as Tove, a young pregnant Danish woman traveling to New York City with her family Lucas Lynggaard Tønnesen as Krester, a young Danish man with a mysterious scar on his face Maria Erwolter as Iben, a religious Dane traveling with her husband Anker and children, who supposedly hears the voice of God Alexandre Willaume as Anker, a religious Dane going to New York with his wife Iben, his son Krester, and his daughters Tove and Ada Tino Mewes as Sebastian, the first mate on the Kerberos Isaak Dentler as Franz, the captain's right-hand man Fflyn Edwards as Elliot, a.k.a. "the boy", a mysterious mute boy found under unusual circ*mstances, who becomes Maura's charge on board the Kerberos. Anton Lesser as Henry Singleton, a British investor and Maura's father Recurring Vida Sjørslev as Ada, Krester and Tove's younger sister Alexander Owen as Landon, a stoker and friend of Darrel Ben Ashenden as Darrel, a stoker and friend of Landon Richard Hope as Dr. Reginald Murray, a boorish British doctor Joshua Jaco Seelenbinder as Eugen, an officer on the Kerberos Niklas Maienschein as Wilhelm, the telegraph operator on the Kerberos Jónas Alfreð Birkisson as Einar, a third class passenger from Norway and mutineer Heidi Toini as Bente, a third class passenger Guest Cloé Heinrich as Nina Larsen, Eyk's daughter Alexandra Gottschlich as Sara Larsen, Eyk's wife Kaja Chan as Mei Mei, Ling Yi's friend in Hong Kong Martin Greis as Villads, the landowner that employed Anker's family Episodes No. Title Directed by Written by Original release date 1 "The Ship" Baran bo Odar Jantje Friese 17 November 2022 On October 19, 1899, the steamship Kerberos is sailing from England to New York City. Four months earlier, its sister ship Prometheus disappeared without a trace on the same route. Maura and many of the first-class passengers on Kerberos are in the dining room when third-class passenger Krester bursts in pleading for a doctor. Krester is thrown out by Franz, but Maura follows Krester down into third-class, where she resolves Tove's tangled umbilical cord. Lucien and Clémence struggle with intimacy. Maura has strange visions. She encounters the captain of the Kerberos, Eyk, who warns her to follow the ship's rules. After receiving a message of only a set of coordinates, presumably from the Prometheus, Eyk changes course of the Kerberos to those coordinates, to the chagrin of many passengers. Kerberos sights the Prometheus, which appears to be abandoned. Eyk boards Prometheus with Maura, Ramiro, Olek and Jérôme. Ángel takes an interest in Krester. A mysterious man boards Kerberos and moves into the room next to Maura's. On Prometheus, Eyk finds a strange hairband, and discovers that the telegraph is destroyed. Maura follows a scarab beetle to a cabinet and opens it to find a boy, who hands her a black tetrahedron object. 2 "The Boy" Baran bo Odar Jantje Friese & Dario Madrona López Gallego 17 November 2022 Eyk receives a message from the shipping company reading only two words: "Sink ship". Maura houses the boy, the only person discovered on Prometheus, in her room. She discovers a ring in his possession, and a symbol of an upside-down triangle with a horizontal line behind his left ear. The mysterious man introduces himself to Maura as Daniel. Ángel gives Krester a cigarette tin. Jérôme breaks into Lucien and Clémence's room and leaves a Legion of Honour medal. Eyk has hallucinations of his wife and daughters, who died in a house fire some years ago; one of his daughters wears the same hairband found on Prometheus. He wakes up to find a shaft has appeared under the bed in his room. Tove finds the cigarette tin and angrily returns it to Ángel; Ángel and Ramiro have an argument which leads to them having sex. Jérôme is discovered to be a stowaway and subdued. Maura shows the boy a letter bearing the same triangle symbol which led her to board the ship, but he remains mute. Eyk decides to tow Prometheus back to Europe, to the growing displeasure of many passengers and crew. Eyk shows Maura a similar letter that led him to Kerberos, and he believes answers lie with the Prometheus. Ada is found dead. Elsewhere, someone is monitoring the ship's occupants on screens. 3 "The Fog" Baran bo Odar Jantje Friese & Emma Ko 17 November 2022 Ada's cause of death is unable to be determined. After Kerberos runs into heavy fog, Eyk orders the ship to stop and wait until the fog clears. Eyk shows Maura the hairband and the shaft in his room. The two head back to Prometheus to find its logbook. First mate, Sebastian uncovers a panel and inputs a sequence made of triangles. While hiding from her mother after an argument about her training to be a geisha, Ling Yi has flashbacks of her friend's accidental death which led to her boarding Kerberos. Olek finds Ling Yi and comforts her. Disobeying Eyk's orders to keep Ada's death secret, Franz lets Tove retrieve her body. Krester gives Ángel a handjob. Daniel enters Maura's room and meets with the boy. On the Prometheus, Eyk and Maura find another shaft bearing the triangle symbol, which is also the ship company's logo. More bodies are found on the Kerberos. Eyk finds a document in Prometheus's furnaces which he hides from Maura. Ling Yi entertains Lucien, though he has a seizure after an interruption by Clémence earlier prevented him from taking medication. Furious with Eyk's decision to return to Europe and hide Ada's death, Franz arms the third-class passengers and urges them to launch a mutiny. Olek attempts to warn Eyk but is beaten and locked up with Jérôme. Ramiro warns Eyk, but both are arrested by mutineers led by Tove. Daniel uses a device resembling a sliding puzzle to teleport the Kerberos. 4 "The Fight" Baran bo Odar Jantje Friese & Jerome Bucchan-Nelson 17 November 2022 The mutineers sail the Kerberos westward. Franz forces Jérôme and Olek to throw the bodies overboard. Sebastian convinces Iben the boy is to blame for the deaths, and she takes command of the mutineers and orders a search. Lucien finds the medal and attacks Clémence, only to apologize and leave. Eyk and Ramiro escape captivity. Iben leads a search of Maura's room, but the boy has disappeared. Maura discovers a shaft appearing under her bed with the boy hiding in it. The boy uses a beetle to lead Maura to a safe path across the ship. Olek stages a distraction, allowing Jérôme to escape. Krester spits in Ángel's face in front of Iben, but she tells him she wishes God had taken him rather than Ada. Jérôme encounters Clémence and the two find Eyk and Ramiro, later joined by Maura and the boy. The six attempt to launch a lifeboat, but are found by the mutineers. The boy surrenders himself, but Jérôme tries to intervene and is shot. Jérôme has flashbacks of his time in the French Foreign Legion alongside Lucien. When Lucien's suggestion to desert was rejected by Jérôme, he locks Jérôme in a cell, steals the uniform of a dead officer, and leaves the medal with Jérôme. Back on Kerberos, Eyk and Jérôme rally loyalists opposed to the mutineers. The two sides clash, but Iben throws the boy overboard before Maura can reach him. Eyk sounds a retreat. He confronts Maura with the document, which lists her as a passenger on the Prometheus. The boy reappears on the Kerberos to shocked loyalists. 5 "The Calling" Baran bo Odar Jantje Friese & Juliana Lima Dehne 17 November 2022 Disgusted by Iben and Krester's actions, Tove defects to the loyalists. Frightened of the boy, the loyalists lock him in a cabinet. Maura is shot at while trying to free him, but time suddenly freezes, and the boy leads her away. When time resumes, a mysterious ticking noise causes most of the ship's passengers, including Yuk Je and Krester, to enter a marching trance and throw themselves overboard. The boy writes Maura a cryptic note that "they" are listening, and whispers to her that if she wants answers, she needs to "ask the Creator". Using a beetle to reveal a passage in the shaft, the boy takes Maura to an abandoned mental asylum. Daniel follows and promises the boy "he" wouldn't find him. The Kerberos receives a second "sink ship" message. Exploring the asylum, Maura encounters Henry. She asks him about her long-lost brother, Ciaran, but is injected with a black substance and wakes up again on the Kerberos. Maura tells Eyk that her father is the owner of the ship company. She uses the beetle to open a passage in the shaft in Eyk's room, which lead them to Eyk's burned house. Daniel disables the ticking, and the survivors regroup. 6 "The Pyramid" Baran bo Odar Jantje Friese & Emil Nygaard Albertsen 17 November 2022 The survivors head to different tasks: Maura and Eyk look for the boy; Ramiro and Anker stay in the bridge with Sebastian; Ángel, Jérôme, Lucien, Olek, Ling Yi, and Franz head to the engine room to restart the engine; and Virginia, Clémence, Tove and Iben search for survivors. A black metallic substance begins to appear and grow in the ship. Tove experiences hallucinations of Krester and Ada, and has flashbacks of her rape by a feudal lord due to Krester's relationship with the lord's son, and her killing the lord. Olek and Ling Yi share their first kiss. Maura and Eyk return to the asylum; they find the walls appear to be the ship's hull. Virginia touches the substance and it spreads through her hand. Sebastian teleports off the ship and meets with Henry, who tells him to find the boy. The engine is restarted. Daniel follows Maura and Eyk; Eyk and Daniel fight, and Daniel teleports him away with the device. Daniel tells Maura they were married 12 years ago and that nothing in their world is real; Maura locks him in a room and takes the device. Eyk wakes to find himself on the Prometheus, surrounded by a sea of similarly abandoned ships. 7 "The Storm" Baran bo Odar Jantje Friese 17 November 2022 The Kerberos sails into a storm. The survivors in the bridge head to the engine room for help. Halfway, Iben refuses to follow the rest of the survivors, and Anker stays with her. Olek and Ling Yi head to the bridge to steer the ship. Franz and Tove move to seal the bulkheads. Daniel breaks down a wall and climbs through a series of portals in different landscapes. Maura climbs through the shaft in Daniel's room and finds herself in an abandoned house; she sees flashbacks of her with Daniel and finds photographs of the two of them with the boy. Daniel finds the boy and pledges to restore Maura's memory so she can "end this loop once and for all"; the boy gives him a wedding ring. Daniel finds Maura and tells her that the boy is their son, named Elliot. He also tells her that they are in a simulation, and that she needs to find the override. Maura takes out a key from her locket. Lucien collapses from a seizure; Clémence and Jérôme try to get him to his medicine, but Lucien dies before it can be administered. Ling Yi sees a vision of Yuk Je and runs out; Olek saves her, but is swept overboard by a wave. Ángel is hit by falling debris and dies in Ramiro's arms. Franz sacrifices himself to save Tove. Iben and Anker drown together. Sebastian brings Elliot to Henry, and Henry demands the key from Maura over an intercom in exchange for her son. The simulation ends and the Kerberos is transported to the sea of ships, where the passengers find Eyk. 8 "The Key" Baran bo Odar Jantje Friese 17 November 2022 Maura, Eyk, Jérôme, Clémence, Ramiro, Tove, Ling Yi and Virginia realize they all received a letter which led to them boarding the Kerberos. Maura tells them they are in a simulation orchestrated by her father, but all except Eyk distrust her and leave. Maura takes Eyk through the shaft in Daniel's room to his memories of their family. Maura and Eyk break down a wall and enter a series of portals. Henry injects Elliot with a white substance, unlocking a memory in which Maura injects Elliot with a black substance despite Daniel telling her to "let him go". Daniel hacks into the simulation, changing the code and causing many disruptions. The rest of the survivors escape from the rapidly expanding black substance in the ship, teleporting into each other's backgrounds before ending up back on the ship. Maura and Eyk run into Sebastian at the asylum. Sebastian uses a device to incapacitate Eyk, then take Maura to Henry and hands him the key. Henry tells Maura she is the Creator. Henry uses the key with the tetrahedron, but Daniel has made them useless. The simulation ends. Maura is reunited with Daniel, who tells her that Ciaran took over the program. Daniel gives her the means to leave, telling her he will "always be there". Maura wakes up alone in a starship called Prometheus, surrounded by many others that were on the Kerberos, placed under suspended animation. On a computer terminal, she sees the date is October 19, 2099, and receives a message from Ciaran welcoming her to reality. Production Development Series creators Jantje Friese (left) and Baran bo Odar (right) On 13 November 2018, it was announced that Dark creators Jantje Friese and Baran bo Odar were developing the project for Netflix under their overall deal at the streaming service.[1] The series was confirmed to be moving forward two weeks later during a Netflix press conference showcasing European original programming.[2] By July 2020, bo Odar revealed via Instagram that Friese had completed writing the script for the pilot episode, titled "The Ship."[3] During an interview with Deadline Hollywood, Friese explained how the European migrant crisis and Brexit were influential to the series, saying: The whole European angle was very important for us, not only story wise but also the way we were going to produce it. It really had to be a European collaboration, not just cast but also crew. We felt that with the past years of Europe being on the decline, we wanted to give a counterpoint to Brexit, and to nationalism rising in different countries, to go back to that idea of Europe and Europeans working and creating together. Being true to the cultures and the languages was really important, we never wanted to have characters from different countries but everyone speaks English. We wanted to explore this heart of Europe, where everyone comes from somewhere else and speaks a different language, and language defines so much of your culture and your behaviour. As with Dark, Friese served as the head writer of the show. The staff writing team comprised writers of different nationalities including Emma Ko (from Hong Kong and the UK), Coline Abert (from France), Jerome Bucchan-Nelson (from the UK), Juliana Lima Dehne (from Brazil and the US), Joshua Long (from the US), Darío Madrona (from Spain), and Emil Nygaard Albertsen (from Denmark). According to director Baran bo Odar, all scripts were first written in English, then the non-English sections were translated by the staff writers and/or translators. Odar had phonetic copies of the script on set, and language assistants were present during filming to ensure the accuracy of the dialogue.[4] Friese and bo Odar have ideas for two more seasons, with increased complexity compared to season 1.[5] The planned three-season structure stems from Friese's and bo Odar's film background, where films have three acts.[6] The first season served to establish the theme and characters and pose big questions.[6] If ordered by Netflix, the second season would explain the symbology of the triangles, and Maura's brother would be an important character.[6] bo Odar described this second act as "all about the fun and games, where you play with the theme, and maybe get a little bit more megalomaniacal and crazy, and then resolve it in the third season into a hopefully satisfying resolution."[6] Budget The budget for the series was at least €60 million ($62.2 million) with €2 million coming from Medienboard Berlin-Brandenburg,[7] €10 million coming from the German Motion Picture Fund,[8] and Netflix investing €48 million in the project. 1899 is the most expensive German television series of all time.[9] Casting On 16 December 2020, it was announced that Emily Beecham was cast in the lead role.[10] On 2 May 2021, Aneurin Barnard, Andreas Pietschmann, Miguel Bernardeau, Maciej Musiał, Anton Lesser, Lucas Lynggaard Tønnesen, Rosalie Craig, Clara Rosager, Maria Erwolter, Yann Gael, Mathilde Ollivier, José Pimentão, Isabella Wei, Gabby Wong, Jonas Bloquet, Fflyn Edwards, and Alexandre Willaume were added to the cast, with each character speaking in the actor's native language.[11] Filming Main Entrance to Babelsberg Studios with production sign Pre-production for the series officially commenced on 24 November 2020, with a week-long lens test shoot taking place.[12][13] The series was initially scheduled to begin principal photography on 1 February 2021,[14] but was later pushed back by 3 months. Filming officially began on 3 May 2021 at Studio Babelsberg in Potsdam, the only designated UNESCO Creative City of Film in Germany. The series was shot in a new virtual production stage called Volume, operated by bo Odar and Friese's sister company Dark Bay, at Studio Babelsberg.[15] Filming also took place in London, United Kingdom.[14] Creative studio Framestore provided visual effects for the series.[16] Filming wrapped in November 2021 with Baran bo Odar posting on Instagram.[17] Release 1899 had a two-episode premiere on 47th Toronto International Film Festival on 12 September 2022. The series launched on Netflix on 17 November 2022,[18] along with a companion making-of documentary titled Making 1899.[19] Netflix announced a few days after release that 1899 was in 58 countries the most watched product of all the offerings available on Netflix at that time.[20] Despite this, on 2 January 2023, the show was cancelled.[21] Cancellation and response Writing in Forbes about the cancellation of 1899 and other Netflix series, Paul Tassi said that "I feel like Netflix is almost actively stealing my time from me. [...] It's frankly exhausting, and if it's this exhausting for viewers, I have to imagine it's ten times as much for showrunners and actors. Netflix is becoming a graveyard stacked with dead series with unfinished conclusions. [...] Something has to change."[22] Writing in Digital Spy, David Opie said that "for all we know, there might be talks to save the show at HBO or Prime Video, plus there's a small chance that Netflix themselves might try and wrap things up in a one-off special or movie. That's exactly what happened after fans decried Netflix's decision to cancel Sense8 a few years back [that is also an international genre show]."[23] Fans took to social media to decry the decision, and a petition to save the show was started on Change.org. As of 23 January 2023, it had garnered over 87,149 signatures.[24] Reception Audience viewership During its debut week, 1899 ranked at number two on Netflix's Top 10 TV English titles just three days after its release with 79.27 million hours viewed.[25][26] The following week, the series remained at the same position and garnered 87.89 million viewing hours.[27][28] In its third week, the series generated 44.62 million viewing hours, while also holding its position at number two.[29][30] Critical response The series received generally positive reviews. On Rotten Tomatoes, it holds an approval rating of 79% based on 28 reviews, with an average rating of 6.80/10.[31] The website's critical consensus states, "1899 navigates its multicultural passengers through an atmospheric mystery and delivers a suspenseful journey, even if it may never reach a satisfying destination."[31] On Metacritic, which uses a weighted average, the series has a score of 66 out of 100 based on 12 critic reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[32] Collider named 1899 as one of the best new TV shows of 2022,[33] while MovieWeb ranked it the sixth best TV show of the year.[34] Accolades Year Award Category Nominee Result Ref. 2022 Camerimage TV Series Competition 1899 Nominated [35] 2023 American Society of Cinematographers Awards Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Episode of a Series for Non-Commercial Television Nikolaus Summerer (for "The Calling") Nominated [36] Critics' Choice Television Awards Best Foreign Language Series 1899 Nominated [37] Grimme Prize Best Fiction Pending [38] References Clarke, Stewart (13 November 2018). "Migration Drama '1899' Is New Netflix Project From Creators of 'Dark'". Variety. Archived from the original on 3 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021. "Netflix Reveals New Shows from Sweden, France, Germany, Spain, UK". Netflix (Press release). 24 November 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2021 – via The Futon Critic. bo Odar, Baran [@baranboodar] (31 July 2020). "Exciting! The next journey..." Retrieved 3 May 2021 – via Instagram. Huff, Lauren (26 September 2022). "Dark creators tease the mysteries behind their new mind-bending Netflix series 1899". EW. Roxborough, Scott (16 November 2022). "The Creators of '1899' Reveal (Some of) the Secrets Behind the New Netflix Mystery Series". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 24 November 2022. "1899: Wir erklären die verwirrende Netflix-Serie (mit Baran bo Odar und Jantje Friese)". streamgestoeber.podigee.io (Podcast) (in German). Streamgestöber. 23 November 2022. Event occurs at 36:30. Retrieved 24 November 2022. Friese: Also, es wird [in der zweiten Staffel] auf jeden Fall aufgeklärt, was es mit diesen ganzen Dreiecken und so, Symbolen, zu tun hat. / bo Odar: Und der Bruder wird einen wichtigen Charakter spielen, auf alle Fälle. Also Mauras Bruder. [...] Wir kommen ja eigentlich vom Film, und deswegen auch immer drei Staffeln, weil wir das wie drei Akte sehen. Und der erste Akt ist dazu da, alles zu etablieren, das Thema zu setzen, die Charaktere einzuführen, eine große Frage zu stellen, die dann am Ende beantwortet wird. Und die zweite Staffel ist ein klassischer zweiter Akt eines Films, wo es um das Fun and Games geht, wo man mit dem Thema spielt, und man vielleicht noch ein bisschen größenwahnsinniger wird und verrückter, um es dann in der dritten Staffel in einer Auflösung, hoffentlich befriedigend, auflöst. Weil definitiv, die zweite Staffel wird etwas verrückter und wilder. Wenn es eine [zweite Staffel] gibt. Müller, Jochen. "Medienboard: Zwei Mio. Euro für deutsche Netflix-Serie "1899"". blickpunktfilm. Niemeier, Timo. "Netflix-Serie "1899" erhält Mega-Förderung aus dem GMPF". dwdl. "Netflix and Sky are strengthening Germany as a series location". die--tagespost. Wiseman, Andreas (16 December 2020). "'Cruella' & 'The Pursuit Of Love' Actress Emily Beecham To Star In Netflix's Period Horror '1899' From 'Dark' Creators". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 28 January 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021. Grater, Tom (2 May 2021). "Aneurin Barnard, Andreas Pietschmann, Miguel Bernardeau & More Join Epic Netflix Series '1899' From 'Dark' Creators". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 3 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021. bo Odar, Baran [@baranboodar] (24 November 2020). "1899 lens test shooting day #1... thanks to our lovely stand-ins Judith and Bryan... #1899 #hasselbladx1dii @netflix". Retrieved 3 May 2021 – via Instagram. bo Odar, Baran [@baranboodar] (1 December 2020). "Really like these colors and the darkness of these images from our lense camera test for 1899... #1899 #hasselbladx1dii @netflix". Retrieved 3 May 2021 – via Instagram. "1899". Production List. Film & Television Industry Alliance. 5 November 2020. Archived from the original on 3 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021. Grater, Tom (3 May 2021). "'1899' First Interviews: Netflix & The Creators Of 'Dark' Talk Building Europe's Largest Virtual Production Stage To Shoot Ambitious Multilingual Series". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 3 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021. bo Odar, Baran [@baranboodar] (15 January 2021). "The future of working... endless zoom calls for 1899. this time with @framestore in London who are doing VFX work for 1899... #1899 @netflix". Retrieved 3 May 2021 – via Instagram. Moore, Kasey (12 August 2022). "Netflix's '1899' From 'Dark' Creators: Everything We Know So Far". What's on Netflix. Retrieved 5 September 2022. Netflix [@Netflix] (24 September 2022). "The new mystery series from the creators of DARK. 1899 premieres November 17 to positive reviews #TUDUM" (Tweet). Retrieved 24 September 2022 – via Twitter. Moore, Kasey (17 November 2022). "'1899' Making Of Documentary Drops on Netflix Globally". What's on Netflix. Retrieved 17 November 2022. Frank, Arno (21 November 2022). "(S+) »1899«: Netflix-Serie soll bei Comic geklaut haben - was ist dran am Vorwurf". Der Spiegel (in German). ISSN 2195-1349. Retrieved 21 November 2022. Petski, Denise (2 January 2023). "'1899' Canceled After One Season At Netflix". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 2 January 2023. "'1899' Cancellation Reiterates Why It's Hard To Bother Investing In Netflix Shows". Forbes. Retrieved 3 January 2023. "Why 1899 was cancelled – and the chances of season 2 or a spinoff". Digital Spy. Retrieved 3 January 2023. "Petition is signed for second series of Netflix's 1899". 3 January 2023. "Netflix Global Top 10". Netflix. 20 November 2022. Archived from the original on 30 November 2022. Retrieved 29 November 2022. Bell, BreAnna (22 November 2022). "Netflix Top 10: 'The Crown' Season 5 Continues to Reign at No. 1, '1899' Debuts at No. 2". Variety. Archived from the original on 30 November 2022. Retrieved 29 November 2022. "Netflix Global Top 10". Netflix. 27 November 2022. Archived from the original on 30 November 2022. Retrieved 29 November 2022. Mitovich, Matt Webb (29 November 2022). "Wednesday Bests a Netflix Viewership Record Set by Stranger Things 4". TVLine. Archived from the original on 30 November 2022. Retrieved 29 November 2022. "Netflix Global Top 10". Netflix. 4 December 2022. Archived from the original on 7 December 2022. Retrieved 6 December 2022. Hailu, Selome (6 December 2022). "'Wednesday' Has Already Become Netflix's Third Most Popular English-Language Series of All Time". Variety. Retrieved 6 December 2022. "1899: Season 1". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on 3 December 2022. Retrieved 23 November 2022. "1899". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 3 December 2022. Retrieved 22 November 2022. Kutschker, Eden (13 December 2022). "10 New TV Shows From 2022 To Binge Before The Year Ends". Collider. Retrieved 14 December 2022. Bundela, Rudransh (29 November 2022). "The Best TV Shows of 2022, Ranked". MovieWeb. Retrieved 14 December 2022. "Energa Camerimage 2022 - Nominations". Independent Talent. Archived from the original on 20 December 2022. Retrieved 20 December 2022. "2023 ASC Awards Nominees Announced". American Society of Cinematographers. Retrieved 10 January 2023. Nordyke, Kimberly (15 January 2023). "Critics Choice Awards: Full List of Winners". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 16 January 2023. Retrieved 16 January 2023. "The nominations for the Grimme Prize 2023". Trend Detail News. 19 January 2023. Retrieved 20 January 2023. 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Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "1899 in the United Kingdom" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (October 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) 1899 in the United Kingdom Other years 1897 | 1898 | 1899 | 1900 | 1901 Constituent countries of the United Kingdom England | Ireland | Scotland | Wales Sport 1899 English cricket season Football: England | Scotland Events from the year 1899 in the United Kingdom. Incumbents Monarch – Victoria Prime Minister – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (Coalition) Parliament – 26th '1899 Events 6 January – Lord Curzon becomes Viceroy of India. 12–13 January – the Lynmouth life-boat Louisa is launched from Porlock Weir, entailing being hauled overland for 15 miles (24 km) with a climb of 1,423 feet (434 m) across Exmoor using 100 volunteers to save all 18 crew of the Forrest Hall in the Bristol Channel.[1] 25 February – in an accident at Grove Hill, Harrow, Edwin Sewell becomes the world's first driver of a petrol-driven vehicle to be killed; his passenger, Maj. James Richer, dies of injuries three days later.[2] 9 March – Charles C. Wakefield begins the lubricating oil company which will become Castrol. 11 March – the world's first wireless distress signal is sent to the East Goodwin light vessel when German cargo-carrying barquentine Elbe runs aground in fog on Goodwin Sands off the Kent coast, bringing assistance from Ramsgate Lifeboat Station.[3] 27 March – Guglielmo Marconi successfully transmits a radio signal across the English Channel.[4] 1 May – the National Trust acquires its first part of Wicken Fen, making it the UK's oldest wetland nature reserve. 17 May – foundation stone of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London is laid by Queen Victoria, her last public engagement[4] – a week before her 80th birthday. Now in the 62nd year of her reign, she is Britain's longest-serving monarch up to this time.[5] Summer – the Central England Temperature sees its 4th hottest summer since 1659 and the hottest since 1868, as of this year.[6] There is also a drought, leading to the 8th driest summer on record at this date.[7] 19 June – Edward Elgar's Enigma Variations (Variations on an Original Theme, Op. 36) are premiered at St James's Hall in London conducted by Hans Richter; the work rapidly attracts international acclaim.[8] 22–27 June – the highest ever recorded cricket score, 628 not out, is made by schoolboy A. E. J. Collins. 9 August – royal assent for: Board of Education Act 1899, establishing the Board of Education.[9] Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act, empowering school authorities to identify and make appropriate educational provision for 'defective' children.[9] Seats for Shop Assistants Act 1899, providing, for the first time, a respite for workers required to remain standing for long periods of time. September – the British Mutoscope and Biograph Company makes King John (a very short silent film) in London, the first known film based on a Shakespeare play. 6 September White Star Line's transatlantic ocean liner RMS Oceanic sails on her maiden voyage out of Liverpool. At 17,272 gross register tons and 704 ft (215 m), she is the largest ship afloat, following scrapping of the SS Great Eastern a decade earlier.[10] Flying Fox completes the English Triple Crown by finishing first in the 2,000 Guineas, Epsom Derby and St Leger. 9 October – first motor bus in London.[11] 11 October – Second Boer War begins: In South Africa, a war between the United Kingdom and the Boers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State erupts.[4] 13 October – Second Boer War: Siege of Mafeking begins. 20 October – Second Boer War: Battle of Talana Hill – In the first major clash of the conflict, near Dundee, Natal, the British Army drives the Boers from their position, but with heavy casualties, including the commanding general Sir Penn Symons. 13 November – Bede is declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Leo XIII, the only Englishman so named.[12] 15 November – the American Line's SS St. Paul becomes the first ocean liner to report her imminent arrival by wireless telegraphy when Marconi's station at The Needles contacts her 66 nautical miles off the coast of England. 24 November – Mahdist War: Decisive British and Egyptian victory at the Battle of Umm Diwaykarat ends the war in Sudan. 8 December – the Aldeburgh life-boat capsizes on service: seven of the eighteen crew are killed.[13] 15 December – Glasgow School of Art opens its new building, the most notable work of Charles Rennie Mackintosh.[14] Undated Raising of school leaving age in England and Wales to twelve.[9][15] Seebohm Rowntree undertakes his first York study of poverty.[16] Liquorice allsorts first marketed by Bassetts of Sheffield. Oxo beef stock cubes introduced by Liebig's Extract of Meat Company. Publications Joseph Conrad's novella Heart of Darkness (three-part serial format). E. W. Hornung's first A. J. Raffles novel The Amateur Cracksman. Rudyard Kipling's poem "The White Man's Burden" and his school stories Stalky & Co. E. Nesbit's children's novel The Story of the Treasure Seekers. Clarence Rook's allegedly documentary The Hooligan Nights; Being the Life and Opinions of a Young and Impertinent Criminal Recounted by Himself. Somerville and Ross's stories Some Experiences of an Irish R.M. (collected in book form). Births This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) 1 January – Jack Beresford, rower (died 1977) 11 January – Eva Le Gallienne, actress (died 1991) 17 January – Nevil Shute (Norway), novelist (died 1960 in Australia) 21 January – John Bodkin Adams, doctor and suspected serial killer (died 1983) 24 January – Thomas Woodrooffe, naval officer and radio commentator (died 1978) 3 February – Doris Speed, actress (died 1994) 13 March – William Lovelock, composer (died 1986) 18 March – Marjorie Abbatt, toy-maker and businesswoman (died 1991)[17] 30 March – Cyril Radcliffe, lawyer and public servant (died 1977) 2 April – Robin Hill, biochemist (died 1991) 6 May – Billy Cotton, bandleader and singer (died 1969) 22 May – Binnie Hale, musical theatre performer (died 1984) 25 May – Kitty Harris, spy for the Soviet Union (died 1966) 1 June – Edward Charles Titchmarsh, mathematician (died 1963) 7 June – Elizabeth Bowen, Anglo-Irish novelist (died 1973) 1 July – Charles Laughton, actor (died 1962) 13 August – Alfred Hitchco*ck, film director (died 1980) 27 August – C. S. Forester, novelist (died 1966) 24 September – Bessie Braddock, born Elizabeth Bamber, Labour politician (died 1970) 29 September – Billy Butlin, holiday camp pioneer (born in South Africa; died 1980) 3 November Ralph Bates, writer (died 2000) Pauline Johnson, born Katherine Johnson, silent film actress (died 1947) 22 November – Philip Mayne, Army officer (died 2007) 2 December John Barbirolli, orchestral conductor (died 1970) John Cobb, racing car and motorboat driver (died 1952) 8 December – Arthur Leslie, television actor (died 1970) 15 December – Harold Abrahams, athlete (died 1978) 16 December – Noël Coward, actor, playwright and composer (died 1973) Deaths This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) 30 January – Harry Bates, sculptor (born 1850) 6 February – Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Prince Alfred of Edinburgh), a grandson of Queen Victoria, in Austria (born 1874) 27 March – Myles Birket Foster, illustrator and watercolour painter (born 1825) 1 April – John Ferguson Nisbet, Scottish journalist and writer (born 1851)[18] 24 May – William Brett, 1st Viscount Esher, law lord (born 1817) 5 June – Margaret Anna Cusack, religious sister (born 1829 in Ireland) 9 August – Edward Frankland, chemist (born 1825) 26 August – Walter Simon Andrews, policeman (Whitechapel murders) (born 1847) 2 September – Ernest Renshaw, tennis player (born 1861) 2 October Emma Hardinge Britten, spiritualist (born 1823) Percy Pilcher, aviation pioneer and glider pilot (born 1866) 30 October – Arthur Blomfield, ecclesiastical architect (born 1829) 2 November – Anna Swanwick, feminist writer (born 1813) 20 November – Georgina Gascoyne-Cecil, Marchioness of Salisbury, political hostess (born 1827) 23 November – Thomas Henry Ismay, shipowner (White Star Line) (born 1837) 5 December – Sir Henry Tate, sugar magnate (born 1819) See also List of British films before 1920 References Fisher, E. J. (1999). "The Strange & Heroic Journey of the Louisa". Lerwill Life. Retrieved 19 January 2013. "Motoring Firsts". National Motor Museum Trust. Archived from the original on 21 August 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010. "Wireless Telegraphy". Lincolnshire Echo. 15 March 1899. p. 3. Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0. "Queen Victoria: The woman who redefined Britain's monarchy". iW?nder. BBC. Retrieved 24 September 2015. Meteoffice "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019. Moore, Jerrold Northrop (1984). Edward Elgar: A Creative Life. Oxford University Press. p. 273. ISBN 0-19-315447-1. Gillard, Derek (2018). "Education in England: a history". HDA. Retrieved 24 October 2020. "R.M.S. Oceanic (II)". Jeff Newman. Archived from the original on 19 September 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2010. Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 328–329. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2. Wright, J. Robert (2008). A Companion to Bede: a Reader's Commentary on The Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-6309-6. "Aldeburgh Lifeboat Capsized: Terrible Scene". Evening Star & Daily Herald. 8 December 1899. Archived from the original on 27 August 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2010. "Congratulations to the Glasgow School of Art as they celebrate 100th anniversary of the Mackintosh Building". Museums Galleries Scotland. 15 December 2009. Archived from the original on 4 February 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010. Berry, George (1970). Discovering Schools. Tring: Shire Publications. ISBN 0-85263-091-3. Poverty, A Study of Town Life. 1901. "Abbatt, Marjorie". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/49549. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) "Death of a Well-known Journalist" . Dundee Courier & Argus. Dundee. 1 April 1899. p. 4. vte 1707–1800 ← Years in the United Kingdom (1801–present) Years in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Years in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland vte 1899 in Europe Sovereign states AndorraAustria-HungaryBadenBelgiumBulgariaDenmarkFranceGermanyGreeceItalyLiechtensteinLuxembourgMonacoMontenegroNetherlandsOttoman EmpirePortugalPrussiaRomaniaRussiaSan MarinoSpainSwedenSwitzerlandUnited Kingdom Dependencies, colonies and other territories CyprusGibraltarGuernseyIsle of ManJerseyMalta Categories: 1899 in the United KingdomYears of the 19th century in the United Kingdom1899 by country1890s in the United Kingdom1899 in Europe

  • Condition: In Good Contion for its age over 120 years old
  • Antique: Yes
  • Type: Coin
  • Unit Type: Unit
  • Original/Repro: Original
  • Material: Silver
  • Country/Region: United Kingdom
  • Unit Quantity: 1
  • Age: 1850-1899
  • Maker: Royal Mint

PicClick Insights - MASSIVSILBER alte drei Pence 1899 Vintage Münze antik Netflix TV Show viktorianisch PicClick Exklusiv

  • Popularität - 12 Beobachter, 2.4 neue Beobachter pro Tag, 5 days for sale on eBay. Super hohe beobachtend. 0 verkauft, 1 verfügbar. Hohe von gebote.
  • Popularität - MASSIVSILBER alte drei Pence 1899 Vintage Münze antik Netflix TV Show viktorianisch

    12 Beobachter, 2.4 neue Beobachter pro Tag, 5 days for sale on eBay. Super hohe beobachtend. 0 verkauft, 1 verfügbar. Hohe von gebote.

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  • Verkäufer - MASSIVSILBER alte drei Pence 1899 Vintage Münze antik Netflix TV Show viktorianisch

    33.872+ artikel verkauft. 0.2% negativ bewertungen. Großer Verkäufer mit sehr gutem positivem Rückgespräch und über 50 Bewertungen.

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